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Bulbar Urethral Diverticulum after Blunt Perineal Trauma: A Case Report
V Singh, RJ Sinha
African Journal of Urology , 2011,
Abstract: Partial injury of the urethra might lead to diverticulum formation and present in a delayed fashion with obstructive voiding symptoms. Herein, we present the case of an 18 year male who presented with urethral diverticulum. He was examined properly, evaluated thoroughly and managed by modified excision of the diverticulum and spongioplasty. In this report we discuss the possible mechanism of diverticulum formation, its treatment (with our modification) and the outcome. We also discuss the world literature related to this topic in brief.
Leprosy masquerading as vitiligo
Sinha V,Kubba Asha
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1992,
Abstract:
Meningioma associated with contralateral chronic subdural haematoma : a short report.
Sinha V,Dharker S
Neurology India , 2001,
Abstract: Two unusual cases of meningiomas associated with opposite chronic subdural haematoma are presented.
Symmetry warrants rational cooperation by co-action in Social Dilemmas
V. Sasidevan,Sitabhra Sinha
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1038/srep13071
Abstract: Is it rational for selfish individuals to cooperate? The conventional answer based on analysis of games such as the Prisoners Dilemma (PD) is that it is not, even though mutual cooperation results in a better outcome for all. This incompatibility between individual rationality and collective benefit lies at the heart of questions about the evolution of cooperation, as illustrated by PD and similar games. Here, we argue that this apparent incompatibility is due to an inconsistency in the standard Nash framework for analyzing non-cooperative games and propose a new paradigm, that of the co-action equilibrium. As in the Nash solution, agents know that others are just as rational as them and taking this into account leads them to realize that others will independently adopt the same strategy, in contrast to the idea of unilateral deviation central to Nash equilibrium thinking. Co-action equilibrium results in better collective outcomes for games representing social dilemmas, with relatively "nicer" strategies being chosen by rational selfish individuals. In particular, the dilemma of PD gets resolved within this framework, suggesting that cooperation can evolve in nature as the rational outcome even for selfish agents, without having to take recourse to additional mechanisms for promoting it.
Co-action provides rational basis for the evolution of cooperation
V. Sasidevan,Sitabhra Sinha
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: How cooperation can originate and be maintained in a society of selfish individuals is one of the central questions in evolutionary biology and social sciences. Formally, it can be posed in the context of the Iterated Prisoners Dilemma (IPD) game where agents interact by either cooperating or defecting in each round, based on the information about their choices in previous rounds of the game. It has been recently shown that social dilemmas arising in single-stage games can be resolved in the co-action framework when the agents are in a completely symmetric situation. Here we examine the IPD from a co-action perspective and show that it allows cooperation to emerge and subsequently be sustained even in the presence of noise. Specifically, we show that the co-action equilibrium for an N -player IPD is a state in which a majority of cooperators coexist with defectors, the exact composition being determined by the ratio of the payoffs. For an IPD between two players, we show that the co-action solution corresponds to a win-stay, lose-shift behavioral rule, thereby providing a rational basis for this Pavlovian strategy.
A dynamical view of different solution paradigms in two-person symmetric games: Nash vs co-action equilibria
V. Sasidevan,Sitabhra Sinha
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: The study of games and their equilibria is central to developing insights for understanding many socio-economic phenomena. Here we present a dynamical systems view of the equilibria of two-person, payoff-symmetric games. In particular, using this perspective, we discuss the differences between two solution concepts for such games - namely, those of Nash equilibrium and co-action equilibrium. For the Nash equilibrium, we show that the dynamical view can provide an equilibrium refinement, selecting one equilibrium among several possibilities, thereby solving the issue of multiple equilibria that appear in some games. We illustrate in detail this dynamical perspective by considering three well known 2-person games namely the Prisoner's Dilemma, game of Chicken and the Stag-Hunt. We find that in all of these cases, co-action equilibria tends to correspond to `nicer' strategies than those corresponding to Nash equilibria.
Tadpole Analysis of Orientifolded Plane-Waves
Aninda Sinha,Nemani V Suryanarayana
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2002/11/026
Abstract: We study orientifolds of type IIB string theory in the plane-wave background supported by null RR 3-form flux F^{(3)}. We describe how to extract the RR tadpoles in the Green-Schwarz formalism in a general setting. Two models with orientifold groups {1, \Omega} and {1,\Omega I_4}, which are T-dual to each other, are considered. Consistency of these backgrounds requires 32 D9 branes for the first model and 32 D5 branes for the second one. We study the spectra and comment on the heterotic duals of our models.
Two-dimensional Bose gas under extreme rotation
S. Sinha,G. V. Shlyapnikov
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.150401
Abstract: We show that a Bose-condensed gas under extreme rotation in a 2D anisotropic trap, forms a novel elongated quantum fluid which has a roton-maxon excitation spectrum. For a sufficiently large interaction strength, the roton energy reaches zero and the system undergoes a second order quantum transition to the state with a periodic structure - rows of vortices. The number of rows increases with the interaction, and the vortices eventually form a triangular Abrikosov lattice.
Emergence of universal scaling in financial markets from mean-field dynamics
S. V. Vikram,Sitabhra Sinha
Quantitative Finance , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.016101
Abstract: Collective phenomena with universal properties have been observed in many complex systems with a large number of components. Here we present a microscopic model of the emergence of scaling behavior in such systems, where the interaction dynamics between individual components is mediated by a global variable making the mean-field description exact. Using the example of financial markets, we show that asset price can be such a global variable with the critical role of coordinating the actions of agents who are otherwise independent. The resulting model accurately reproduces empirical properties such as the universal scaling of the price fluctuation and volume distributions, long-range correlations in volatility and multiscaling.
Ancient Geographical Gaps and Paleo-Climate Shape the Phylogeography of an Endemic Bird in the Sky Islands of Southern India
V. V. Robin,Anindya Sinha,Uma Ramakrishnan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013321
Abstract: Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies.
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