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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1652 matches for " Singhraj Yadav "
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Adverse drug reactions: An Overview
Ankur Rohilla,Singhraj Yadav
International Journal of Pharmacological Research , 2013, DOI: 10.7439/ijpr.v3i1.41
Abstract: Adverse drug reactions (ADR’s) are defined the effects created by drugs producing unintended or noxious response. Also, an ADR is a response to a medicine which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease or for the modification of a physiological function. The evaluation of ADRs adapts various factors that can predispose patients to adverse reactions. The types of adverse reaction can be studies in two main headings, i.e., more common ADRs including type A and B reactions; and less common ADRs which include type C, D and E reactions. The present review article explains about the various types and mechanisms of adverse reactions.
Enzymatic Characterisation of Lignin Peroxidase from Luffa aegyptiaca Fruit Juice  [PDF]
Nivedita Rai, Meera Yadav, Hardeo Singh Yadav
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.73057
Abstract: Luffa aegyptiaca fruit has been assayed for the presence of lignin peroxidase activity using veratryl alcohol as the substrate. The fruit juice contained activity of 3.14 U/ml which was much higher than 0.075 U/ml reported in the culture filtrate of Phanarochaete chrysosporium ATCC-24725. The Km value of the lignin peroxidase using veratryl alcohol as the variable substrate in 50mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5 at 25°C was found to be 50 μM respectively. The pH and temperature optima of the lignin peroxidase were 2.4 and 22°C, respectively. The present article reports viable method to explore rich sources of lignin peroxidase from plants which can be used as a mediator in oxidative organic transformations within green chemistry domain ensuring ecofriendly synthesis of bioorganic molecules of pharmaceutical value.
Process for the Preparation of Chromones, Isoflavones and Homoisoflavones Using Vilsmeier Reagent Generated from Phthaloyl Dichloride and DMF  [PDF]
Santosh Kumar Yadav
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.44027
Abstract: Vilsmeier reagent formed from phthaloyl dichloride and DMF was found to be very effective for converting 2-hydroxyacetophenones, deoxybenzoins and dihydrochalcones into corresponding chromones, isoflavones and homoisoflavones with excellent yield. This method offers significant advantages such as efficiency and mild reaction conditions with shorter reaction time.
Double U-Shaped Slots Loaded Stacked Patch Antenna for Multiband Operation  [PDF]
Nagendra Prasad Yadav
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2015.32002
Abstract: The design of a seven-band stacked patch antenna for the C, X and Ku band is presented. The antenna consists of an H-slot loaded fed patch, stacked with dual U-slot loaded rectangular patch to generate the seven frequency bands. The total size of the antenna is 39.25 × 29.25 mm2. The multiband stacked patch antenna is studied and designed using IE3D simulator. For verification of simulation results, the antenna is analyzed by circuit theory concept. The simulated return loss, radiation pattern and gain are presented. Simulated results show that the antenna can be designed to cover the frequency bands from (4.24 GHz to 4.50 GHz, 5.02 GHz to 5.25 GHz) in C-band application, (7.84 GHz to 8.23 GHz) in X-band and (12.16 GHz to 12.35 GHz, 14.25 GHz to 14.76 GHz, 15.25 GHz to 15.51 GHz, 17.52 GHz to 17.86 GHz) in Ku band applications. The bandwidths of each band of the proposed antenna are 5.9%, 4.5%, 4.83%, 2.36%, 3.53%, 1.68% and 1.91%. Similarly the gains of the proposed band are 2.80 dBi, 4.39 dBi, 4.54 dBi, 10.26 dBi, 8.36 dBi and 9.91 dBi, respectively.
Tri-Band Parallel Slots Loaded Circular Disk Patch Antenna for C and X-Band Applications  [PDF]
Nagendra P. Yadav
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2016.71002
Abstract: This paper presents the tri-band slot loaded patch antenna for mobile communication. The antenna consists of parallel slots loaded circular disk with defected ground structure antenna (DGS). The antenna without DGS, acts like wide band antenna and bandwidth is 34.45% (3.47 - 4.92 GHz) with maximum gain of 4.97 dBi, which can be used in WiMax application. This structure has the following advantages: 1) co-axial feeding technique, which is very simple as compared to other feeding technique, 2) simple and cost effective and 3) it is more efficient than the antenna without DGS. This antenna has been analyzed using IE3D simulation software.
A Retrospective Study of Impact of PPTCT on HIV Trends, Maternal and Perinatal Outcome  [PDF]
Anjali Malhotra, Sumitra Yadav
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.64020
Abstract: Background: Women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS may transmit the infection to their child during pregnancy. The infection may spread during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. However, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV may be reduced by the use of HIV medications known as antiretroviral therapy (ART). Infection with HIV/AIDS is not a contraindication to pregnancy. Some women are unaware they have the disease until they become pregnant. In this case, they should begin antiretroviral therapy as soon as possible [1]. With the appropriate treatment, the risk of mother-to-child infection can be reduced to below 1% [2]. Without treatment, the risk of transmission is 15% - 45% [3]. Objective: The main aim of the study is to appreciate the declining trend of HIV in babies with HIV positive mother by implementation of PPTCT services. Methods: A retrospective study of detection of HIV positive mothers among all the antenatal patients attending OPD and including the patients coming in Emergency services and delivered in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at MGMMC & M. Y. Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India) from Jan 2006 to Dec 2015 was included in the study. They were screened for HIV status and further management of all HIV positive patients.
Effect of LASER on the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles with Reference to Geometries  [PDF]
Shweta Yadav, Soam Prakash
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2018.74006
Abstract: Problem Statement: In the current study the effort was being made to investigate the effect of LASER light on the shape and geometries of Gold Nanoparticles. Light is an important parameter that plays significant role in the formation of nanoparticles; in this study LASER lights of selected wavelengths and colors have been used for the exposure of Gold Nanoparticles. The possibilities to manipulate the geometries of Gold Nanoparticles by altering the colors and wavelengths of LASER have been studied with reference to their efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus. Approach: In the experimental setup four black boxes are used with no exposure to light sources. Three LASER with selected wavelengths and colors were fixed in the boxes at a specific angle, and then the nanoparticle solution was allowed to react. The micrographs of the Gold nanoparticles have been evaluated through the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results: The TEM images have shown formation of different shapes of nanoparticles due to exposure in different colors and wavelengths of LASER. Thus it explains that the wavelength and colour of the light plays a decisive role in the formation of the shapes and geometries of the nanoparticles.
Evolutionary Programming for Systematic Evaluation of Aquifers: A Case Study from Dholera, Cambay Basin, Gujarat, India  [PDF]
Kriti Yadav, Anirbid Sircar
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.74009
Abstract: Joint inversion of different potentials improves subsurface model resolution. In this paper seismic refraction and magnetotelluric data are used to understand near subsurface features of Dholera, Gujarat, India. An extensive seismic and magnetotelluric survey was carried out in Dholera in order to delineate subsurface presence of aquifers. Ray Inversion for Near Surface Estimation (RINSE) is used for inversion of Dholera seismic data. The inversion output of seismic data is used as seed points for resistivity inversion of anomalies. Inversion of resistivity data is done using evolutionary programing method which is also a type of genetic algorithm. Here the optimization is done using four major steps, of evolutionary programing namely population generation, fitness function, crossover and mutation. This paper also compares the similarities between the natural and geophysical optimization. A Low Velocity Layer is identified up to a depth of 11 m from seismic refraction method. Three layers are identified after the interpretation of seismic and resistivity data. The average thicknesses of Layers one and two are calculated as 3.558 and 6.533 respectively.
Polymeric Recrystallized Agglomerates of Cefuroxime Axetil Prepared by Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Technique
VB Yadav, AV Yadav
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To study the effect of different polymers on the solubility and dissolution rate of cefuroxime axetil (CFU) prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion (ESD) technique. Methods: The ESD technique employed involved three test solvents: first, substance dissolution medium-good solvent (acetone); second, partial dissolution medium for the substance-bridging liquid (dichloromethane), and third, immiscible with the substance-poor solvent (distilled water). The pure CFU and the prepared agglomerates were characterized in terms of production yield, drug content, solubility, in vitro release profile, flowability, density, wettability, as well as by thin layer chromatography (TLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) and stability test. Results: DSC showed a decrease in the melting enthalpy indicating disorder in the crystalline content. XRD also indicated changes in crystallinity, FTIR revealed that there were no chemical changes in the recrystallized agglomerates while dissolution data demonstrated a marked increase in the dissolution rate (>55 % in 45 min) compared with the pure drug (35% in 45 min). The improvement in the dissolution rate of CFU from optimized crystal formulation was attributed to the wetting effect of the polymers, change in drug crystallinity, altered surface morphology and micronization. The recrystallized agglomerates also exhibited higher wettability and flowability. Conclusion: The optimised recrystallized agglomerates exhibited good solubility, wettability, dissolution rate and other physicochemical properties compared to the unmodified CFU.
Preparation and evaluation of polymeric carbamazepin spherical crystals by emulsion solvent diffusion technique
Yadav Adhikrao,Yadav Venkat
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, a significant effect of different polymers on improving the solubility, dissolution rate, and physicochemical properties of carbamazepine (CBZ) has been demonstareted by emulsion solvent diffusion technique, with ethanol-chloroform-water as the solvent system. The hydrophilic polymers like polyethylene glycol, chitosan, and hydrophobic polymer Eudragit RSPO were used in the recrystallization process. The pure drug CBZ and the prepared spherical crystals of CBZ with different polymers were characterized in terms of morphology (microscopical photograph), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), drug contents, solubility, dissolution rate, crushing strength, wettability, flowability, and packability. The FTIR spectra of the prepared spherical crystals showed that changes in the chemical nature occur and do not present great fingerprint difference. The XRD also revealed a characteristic decrease in crystallinity. The solubility and dissolution studies demonstrated a marked increase in solubility and dissolution rate in comparison with the pure drug. The prepared spherical crystals with different polymers exhibited excellent physicochemical properties like flowability, packability, and wettability compared with the pure drug. The spherical crystals with polyethylene glycol and chitosan showed higher crushing strength when compared with the hydrophobic polymer (Eudragit RSPO).
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