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A Retrospective Study of Characteristics of Malaria Cases Attending OPD of a Tertiary Care Level Hospital in Bilaspur District, Chhattisgarh
Pandey Sachin,Singh Arun
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The mobility for employment in this tribal dominated region i.e. Bilaspur and other neighbouring and bordering Districts results constant admixture of different subgroups of the population which is a leading factor for spread of malaria in all possible directions. The present study was carried out to find out the proportion of fever patients,samples positive for malaria, types of parasites involved and the seasonal variation of malaria cases. Methodology: This record-based descriptive retrospective study was conducted from January to December 2009. All the patients with fever as chief complain who had attended OPD of Medicine, their blood samples were collected from Central laboratory & Pathology Department of a tertiary care level hospital in Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh state. The cases were identified from computer recordsof the hospital during one year. Individual case note was retrieved and data abstracted in a specific format which was developed for the study. The data were analyzed in the computer software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. Results: Out of a total of 4063 blood reports studied 1005 (24.74%) were positive for malaria. The overall slide positivity rate (SPR) and slide falciparum rate (SFR) were 24.74% and 71.5 % respectively and Positive falciparum (Pf) constituted 18.1% of the malaria cases. These observations are very alarming and call for immediate attention for controlling the disease in these communities to stop all the transmissions of the parasites of the diseases in the different subgroups of the populations of the region.
Image Inpainting By Optimized Exemplar Region Filling Algorithm
Shivali Tyagi,Sachin Singh
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: This paper discusses removing objects from digital images and fills the hole that is left behind. Here, we present a novel and effective algorithm that combines the advantages of these two approaches. We first note that exemplar-based texture synthesis contains the essential process required to replicate both texture and structure; the success of structure propagation, however, is highly dependent on the order in which the filling proceeds. The existing algorithms are combined to improve the efficiency for finding the line association in selected region (like solid objects). Main focus is on data term and confidence term to find line association in selected region which is to be inpainted. The region filling is done from that line associated to other section in selected region.
Some Improved Multivariate-Ratio-Type Estimators Using Geometric and Harmonic Means in Stratified Random Sampling
Sachin Malik,Rajesh Singh
ISRN Probability and Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/509186
Abstract:
A Family Of Estimators Of Population Mean Using Information On Point Bi-Serial and Phi Correlation Coefficient
Sachin Malik,Rajesh Singh
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean when some information on two auxiliary attributes are available. It is shown that the proposed estimator is more efficient than the usual mean estimator and other existing estimators. The study is also extended to two-phase sampling. The results have been illustrated numerically by taking empirical population considered in the literature.
An improved class of exponential ratio- type estimator in the presence of measurement errors
Sachin Malik,Rajesh Singh
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper we have suggested a family of estimators for the population mean in the presence of measurement errors. Expression for the mean squared error (MSE) of the suggested family is derived. An empirical study has been carried out to verify the theoretical findings.
An alternative estimator for estimating the finite population mean in presence of measurement errors
Sachin Malik,Rajesh Singh
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: This article presents the problem of estimating the population mean using auxiliary information in the presence of measurement errors. A numerical study is made among the proposed estimator, the exponential ratio estimator, Singh and Solanki (2012) estimator and the mean per unit estimator in the presence of measurement errors. Key words: Population mean, Study variate, Auxiliary variates, Mean squared error, Measurement errors, Efficiency
Improved estimator of population variance using information on auxiliary attribute in simple random sampling
Rajesh Singh,Sachin Malik
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Singh and Kumar (2011) suggested estimators for calculating population variance using auxiliary attributes. This paper proposes a family of estimators based on an adaptation of the estimators presented by Kadilar and Cingi (2004) and Singh et al. (2007), and introduces a new family of estimators using auxiliary attributes. The expressions of the mean square errors (MSEs) of the adapted and proposed families are derived. It is shown that adapted estimators and suggested estimators are more efficient than Singh and Kumar (2011) estimators. The theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example.
A New Estimator For Population Mean Using Two Auxiliary Variables in Stratified random Sampling
Rajesh Singh,Sachin Malik
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we suggest an estimator using two auxiliary variables in stratified random sampling. The propose estimator has an improvement over mean per unit estimator as well as some other considered estimators. Expressions for bias and MSE of the estimator are derived up to first degree of approximation. Moreover, these theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example with original data. Key words: Study variable, auxiliary variable, stratified random sampling, bias and mean squared error.
Recovery of hydrocarbon liquid from waste high density polyethylene by thermal pyrolysis
Kumar, Sachin;Singh, R. K.;
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322011000400011
Abstract: thermal degradation of waste plastics in an inert atmosphere has been regarded as a productive method, because this process can convert waste plastics into hydrocarbons that can be used either as fuels or as a source of chemicals. in this work, waste high-density polyethylene (hdpe) plastic was chosen as the material for pyrolysis. a simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse waste hdpe with the objective of optimizing the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400oc to 550oc. results of pyrolysis experiments showed that, at a temperature of 450oc and below, the major product of the pyrolysis was oily liquid which became a viscous liquid or waxy solid at temperatures above 475oc. the yield of the liquid fraction obtained increased with the residence time for waste hdpe. the liquid fractions obtained were analyzed for composition using ftir and gc-ms. the physical properties of the pyrolytic oil show the presence of a mixture of different fuel fractions such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel in the oil.
Thermolysis of High-Density Polyethylene to Petroleum Products
Sachin Kumar,R. K. Singh
Journal of Petroleum Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/987568
Abstract: Thermal degradation of plastic polymers is becoming an increasingly important method for the conversion of plastic materials into valuable chemicals and oil products. In this work, virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as a material for pyrolysis. A simple pyrolysis reactor system has been used to pyrolyse virgin HDPE with an objective to optimize the liquid product yield at a temperature range of 400°C to 550°C. The chemical analysis of the HDPE pyrolytic oil showed the presence of functional groups such as alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, esters, and phenyl ring substitution bands. The composition of the pyrolytic oil was analyzed using GC-MS, and it was found that the main constituents were n-Octadecane, n-Heptadecane, 1-Pentadecene, Octadecane, Pentadecane, and 1-Nonadecene. The physical properties of the obtained pyrolytic oil were close to those of mixture of petroleum products. 1. Introduction Plastic materials comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Owing to the huge amount of plastic wastes and environmental pressures, recycling of plastics has become a predominant subject in today’s plastics industry. Development of technologies for reducing plastic waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint and are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge because of the complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of plastic materials, thus, remains a worldwide challenge in the new century. Plastic materials find applications in agriculture as well as in plastic packaging, which is a high-volume market owing to the many advantages of plastics over other traditional materials. However, such materials are also the most visible in the waste stream and have received a great deal of public criticism as solid materials have comparatively short life-cycles and usually are nondegradable. Thermal cracking, or pyrolysis, involves the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating in the absence of oxygen. The process is usually conducted at temperatures between 500 and 800°C and results in the formation of a carbonized char and a volatile fraction that may be separated into condensable hydrocarbon oil and a noncondensable high calorific value gas. The proportion of each fraction and its precise composition depend primarily on the nature of the plastic waste and on process conditions as well. In pyrolytic processes, a proportion of species generated directly from the initial
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