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Percutaneous penetration enhancement in transdermal drug delivery
Singh Inderjeet,Sri Prasanthi
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The transdermal route has numerous advantages over the more traditional drug delivery routes. These include high bioavailability, absence of first pass hepatic metabolism, steady drug plasma concentrations, and the fact that therapy is non-invasive. The main obstacle to permeating drug molecules is the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. Consequently, research into enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD) by overcoming this layer, is an area of prime interest. This review article is written to provide a coverage commentary of the recent advancements in TDD enhancement techniques.
Clinical profile of psoriatic arthropathy
Chaudhary SP,Singh Trilochan,Kaur Inderjeet,Suri Sudha
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1990,
Abstract: Thirty patients of psoriatic arthritis were examined for, elucidation of Epidemiological aspects and clinical variation of this disease. Mill′s and Wright criteria for the diagnosis of was applied. Arthritis antedated psoriasis of skin in 13.3% and the onset was acute in .36.7%. The types of arthritis observed were polyarticular in 33.3% mixed in 2D%, oligoarthritis in 16.7%, DIP in 13.3%, sacroilitis ′in 10% and arthritis mutilans in 6.7%. The joints found to be most frequently involved were proximal ′interphalangeal (66.6%) and distal interphalangeal joints (65%) of I the hands. No distinct pattern of dermal psoriasis in psoriatic arthritis was observed., Nail changes were observed in 76.60/c of patients. No other eye changes except blepharitis was seen in two (7%) patients.HLA-A and HLA-B phenotyping was done in 16 patients, among them 12 patients had peripheral type of psoriatic arthritis HIA-A 1 B 17 and B 27 were present in 6 (20%),9 (30%) and 2 (7%) patients respectively.
Photo-catalytic activity of Zn1-x Mn x S nanocrystals synthesized by wet chemical technique
Chitkara Mansi,Singh Karamjit,Sandhu Inderjeet,Bhatti Harbhajan
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2011,
Abstract: Polyvinyl pyrrolidone capped Zn1-x Mn x S (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) nanocrystals have been synthesized using wet chemical co-precipitation method. Crystallographic and morphological characterization of the synthesized materials have been done using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Crystallographic studies show the zinc blende crystals having average crystallite size approx. 3 nm, which is almost similar to the average particle size calculated from electron micrographs. Atomic absorption spectrometer has been used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of synthesized nanomaterials. Photo-catalytic activity has been studied using methylene blue dye as a test contaminant. Energy resolved luminescence spectra have been recorded for the detailed description of radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms. Photo-catalytic activity dependence on dopant concentration and luminescence quantum yield has been studied in detail.
Duration of Use of Computer as Risk Factor for Developing Back Pain among Indian Office Going Women
Lalhmunlien Robert Varte, Shweta Rawat, Inderjeet Singh, Dhurjati Majumdar
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v3i1.5567
Abstract: Introduction: The study was designed to investigate back pain among working women in one of the largest Research and Development Organization in India and identify occupational factors associated with lower back pain by means of a survey of female employees. Methods: This study investigated the relative risk of whether different age groups, job types, body mass index (BMI), years or service, screen viewing distance, self perception of comfort level and duration of use of computer have a bearing on the occurrence of back pain and if such risk factors aggravate cases of back pain. Results: In the unadjusted table, there was a statistically significant chance of developing backpain as the age increases (odds ratio) OR 1.56, 95% (confidence interval) CI (1.030 - 2.372), however, after adjusting for the other co-variates, this chance was not of significance. Job types, body mass index (BMI) >30 (OR >1 (0.802-1.877), years of service and screen distance OR >1 (0.96-1.745) all showed a positive association with back pain though the p values were not of statistically significance.? In the adjusted table, for those who use the computer daily at the workplace for more than 6 hours, there was a statistically significant association for this group of developing back pain as compared to the first group i.e. those who work for 0-2 hours, as shown by OR 1.79, (1.123 - 2.864). Conclusion: The present study indicated that backpain is present in as much as about 25.3% of the study population. For those who use the computer >6 hours daily, there was a statistically significant chance of developing backpain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v3i1.5567 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 3(2012) 6-12
Synthesis, Characterization of Cellulose Grafted N-Oxide Reagent and Its Application in Oxidation of Alkyl/Aryl Halides  [PDF]
Inderjeet Kaur, Poonam K. Dhiman
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2011.11002
Abstract: Oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic halides by N-oxide functionalities supported on 4- vinyl pyridine, (4-VP), grafted cellulose is reported in the present manuscript. Synthesis of graft copolymer of cellulose and poly 4-vinyl pyridine, poly(4-VP), has been carried out using ceric ions as redox initiator. Post-grafting treatment of CellO-g-poly (4-VP) with 30% H2O2 in acetic acid gives Cellulose-g-poly (4-VP) N-oxide, the polymeric supported oxidizing reagent. The polymeric support, CellO-g-poly (4-VP) N-oxide, has been used for oxidation reactions of different alkyl / aryl halide such as 1-bromo-3-methyl butane, 2-bromo propane,1-bromo heptane and benzyl chloride. The polymeric reagent was characterized by IR and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The oxidized products were characterized by FTIR and H1NMR spectral methods. The reagent was reused for the oxidation of a fresh alkyl / aryl halides and it was observed that the polymeric reagent oxidizes the compounds successfully but with little lower product yield.
Synthesis, Characterization, and X-Ray Structure of Bis(O-butyldithiocarbonato)bis(3-ethyl pyridine)nickel(II)
Inderjeet Kaur,Kuldeep Singh,Gurvinder Kaur,Renu Sachar,Vivek K. Gupta,Rajni Kant
Journal of Crystallography , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/642839
Abstract: A new series of additional complexes of bis(O-butyldithiocarbonato)nickel(II) with ethylpyridines have been prepared and characterized by physicochemical techniques like elemental analysis, molar conductance measurements, TGA-DTA and UV-visible electronic spectroscopy, and IR-spectral data. The structure of [Ni(S2COC4H9)2(C7H9N)2] has been established by X-ray crystallography. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P1/n with unit cell parameters , , and ?? and , , and °. The Ni atom in the title complex is octahedrally coordinated within a trans-N2S4 donor set, with the Ni atom located on a centre of inversion. Crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full matrix least squares procedures to a final -value of 0.0545 for 1984 observed reflections. The butyl chain is disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratio of 0.572?:?0.427. 1. Introduction O-alkyldithiocarbonate ( ), named xanthate, represents an important class of 1, 1 dithiolato ligands which have been studied extensively [1, 2]. These compounds form water insoluble complexes with most of the transition metals and are thus extensively employed for the separation and quantitative determination of cations of transition metals [3]. Beside this these ligands are also investigated for nonlinear optical application and as a synthetic precursor for the generation of metal sulfide nanoparticles [4, 5]. Xanthates as ligand are also extensively studied for a wide variety of structural features. They are known to coordinate as a monodentate, bidentate, or as a bridging ligand. Xanthate complexes of composition [Ni(Rxa)2] (R = alkyl; xa = xanthate) are partially unsaturated and thus they can react easily with monodentate or bidentate nitrogen donor ligands and afford octahedral nickel(II) complexes with either cis or trans geometry. As a part of our ongoing research on nickel(II) xanthate complexes with substituted pyridines, we report here the synthesis and characterization of 1?:?2 adducts of bis(O-butyldithiocarbonato)nickel(II) with ethyl pyridines and also the crystal structure of the adduct bis(O-butyldithiocarbonato)bis(3-ethylpyridine)nickel(II). 2. Experimental 2.1. Material and Measurement Carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, and nitrogen contents of the addition complexes are determined on elemental analyzer CHNS 932, LECO Corporation, USA. Molar conductance of adducts was determined on their millimolar4 solutions in DMF by using digital conductivity meter “Century CC 601.” Infrared spectra of the complexes over the region 4000–200?cm?1 were recorded using KBr
Diet preference with regional variation of body mass index and hand grip strength of Indian females
Lalhmunlien Robert Varte, Shweta Rawat, Inderjeet Singh, Madhu Sudan Pal, Dhurjati Majumdar
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v4i3.8096
Abstract: Introduction: Nutritional content of diet of vegetarian and non-vegetarian differs in terms of food composition and vegetarian diets are often low in protein, probably causing a difference in body composition, structure and strength characteristics. Purpose of study: To study anthropometric, body composition and hand strength differences among 641 vegetarian and 424 non-vegetarian Indian women, aged 20–60 yrs. Methods: ANOVA, t-test, multivariable stepwise regression and logistic regressions were performed to analyse association between BMI, hand grip strength and potential confounders using SPSS Version 17 for Windows. p < 0.05 referred to as statistically significant. Results: Vegetarians had less body fat than non-vegetarians. Statistically significant difference was found in their grip strength (GS) (t = 2.459, p < 0.05) and BMI (t = 2.188, p < 0.05). Height and weight were positively associated with grip strength in the vegetarian group while height and fat free mass were seen to be positively associated with grip strength in the non-vegetarian group. Grip strength was greater in non-vegetarian group and the vegetarians had lower BMI (25.33 kg/mt 2 ± 4.56) than nonvegetarians (25.95 kg/mt 2 ± 4.45, t-test = 2.188, p <0.05). Conclusion: Those with greater grip strength (non-vegetarian group) had greater chance of being obese than those with lower grip strength (vegetarian group). (OR = 2.609, 95% CI 1.487 - 4.577). However, lower levels of body mass indices of the vegetarian women suggest that they are healthier than non-vegetarians in terms of BMI.? DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v4i3.8096 ? Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 4(2013) 43-51
Foundation Networks and American Hegemony
Inderjeet Parmar
European Journal of American Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/ejas.9476
Abstract: The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.
Appearance of L90I and N205S Mutations in Effector Domain of NS1 Gene of pdm (09) H1N1 Virus from India during 2009–2013
Sachin Kumar,Shashi Khare,Bano Saidullah,Inderjeet Gandhoke,Hanu Ram,Supriya Singh,L. S. Chauhan,Arvind Rai
Advances in Virology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/861709
Abstract: In the present study, full length sequencing of NS gene was done in 91 samples which were obtained from patients over the time period of five years from 2009 to 2013. The sequencing of NS gene was undertaken in order to determine the changes/mutations taking place in the NS gene of A H1N1 pdm (09) since its emergence in 2009. Analysis has shown that the majority of samples belong to New York (G1 type) strain with valine at position 123. Effector domain of NS1 protein displays the appearance of three mutations L90I, I123V, and N205S in almost all the samples from 2010 onwards. Phylogenetic analysis of available NS1 sequences from India has grouped all the sequences into four clusters with mean genetic distance ranging from 12% to 24% between the clusters. Variability in length of NS1 protein was seen in sequences from these clusters, 230-amino-acid-residue NS1 for all strains from year 2007 to 2008 and for 21 strains from year 2009 and 219-residue products for 37 strains from year 2009 and all strains from year 2010 to 2013. Mutations like K62R, K131Q, L147R, and A202P were observed for the first time in NS1 protein and their function remains to be determined. 1. Introduction Influenza viruses are responsible for acute respiratory infection and are a source of seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on the different types of HA and NA combinations that occur. So far 18 hemagglutinin (HA) and 11 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have been reported from various organisms ranging between aquatic, avian, and human species [1, 2]. Segment 8 of influenza A (H1N1) encodes two proteins NS1 (nonstructural) protein and NEP (nuclear export protein) by alternative splicing. The mRNAs of both proteins share 56 nucleotides at the 5′ end, resulting in both proteins sharing 10 amino acids at N terminal. NS1 protein is encoded by the collinear mRNA from segment 8 of the influenza virus genome and has a strain specific length ranging from 230 to 237 amino acid residues. It is expressed exclusively in the infected cells [3]. NS1 could be divided into two functional domains: (i) N-terminal RNA binding domain (residues 1–73) and (ii) C-terminal effector domain, interacting with several host factors (residues 74–230) [3–6]. NS1 is a multifunctional protein involved in various functions of regulating immune responses. It functions as an interferon (IFN) antagonist, which allows efficient virus replication in IFN-competent hosts. NS1 targets both IFN- production and the activation of IFN-induced antiviral genes [6]. The RNA
Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Real-Time Traffic in OFDMA
Inderjeet Kaur,Kamal Thakur
Journal of Mobile Communication , 2012,
Abstract: OFDMA is an attractive multiple access technique for packet-based mobile broadband wireless access for beyond 3G and 4G systems. Radio resource allocation in OFDMA can exploit multiuser diversity to increase system capacity by implementing opportunistic scheduling techniques. This study presents a new opportunistic scheduling scheme for OFDMA-based wireless multimedia networks. We focus the scheduling algorithm on the class of delay-sensitive packets that belong to interactive applications such as telephony and video streaming. I divided the scheduling decision into 2 sub-problems: The OFDMA subcarrier allocation and subsequently the subcarrier assignment. Both the subcarrier allocation and assignment algorithms exploit multiuser diversity and are designed to provide fairness with respect to the realizable throughput per user, packet dropping ratios and packet delay distributions. We investigate various performance aspects of the proposed scheduling algorithm using actual MPEG-4 traffic traces under different system loading and requested deadline values. The results show the superiority of the proposed scheduling scheme and its excellent performance with respect to throughput, packet droppingand delay distributions.
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