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Role Of Conjunctival Impression Cytology (CIC) In Community Diagnosis Of Xerophthalmia
Singh Gyanendra
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1997,
Abstract:
Prolonging the Shelf Life of Ready-to-Serve Pizza through Modified Atmosphere Packaging: Effect on Textural and Sensory Quality  [PDF]
Preeti Singh, Ali Abas Wani, Gyanendra Kumar Goyal
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.27108
Abstract: The effects of different modified atmospheres (air: atm1; 100% CO2: atm2; 100% N2: atm3; 50% CO2/50% N2: atm4) on the textural and sensory characteristics of the ready-to-serve pizza at 7℃ ± 1℃ were investigated. The values of hardness, gumminess and chewiness were found to be increased during the storage period while cohesiveness and springiness exhibited a decreasing trend. Overall, the 100% CO2 product yielded the best textural and sensorial characteristics followed by 50%CO2/50% N2 and 100% N2 when compared to conventional packed pizza at 7℃ ± 1℃. Carbon dioxide caused microbial inhibition as well. The shelf life of ready-to-serve pizza significantly increased upto 45 days (a 300% increase) for the samples packaged under 100% CO2 (atm2), 50% CO2/50% N2 (atm4) and 100% N2 (atm3), compared to conventional air pack (15 days).
Evaluation of serum tumor necrosis factor α and its correlation with histology in chronic kidney disease, stable renal transplant and rejection cases
Sonkar Gyanendra,Usha,Singh R
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2009,
Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF α) is a cytokine secreted by macrophages, helper T cells, Natural Killer cells, B lymphocytes and non lymphoid cells e.g. endothelial cells, fibroblast and tumor cell lines. Aim of the study was to find the utility of TNF α in diagnosing renal transplant rejection among the renal transplant cases (n=29), and comparison with the levels in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (n=21) and healthy controls (n=20). TNF α in healthy controls varied from 2 to 15 pg/mL. In chronic renal failure and renal transplant rejection cases TNF α was above 45 pg/mL. In stable renal transplant patients it was higher than normal (16 to 30 pg/mL). In both acute and chronic transplant rejection TNF α increase correlated well with histology. Thus our study suggests that TNF α level more than 45 pg/mL can be taken as an immunological marker of renal transplant rejection.
Molecular and Cellular Characterization of an AT-Hook Protein from Leishmania
Ben L. Kelly, Gyanendra Singh, Ashok Aiyar
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021412
Abstract: AT-rich DNA, and the proteins that bind it (AT-hook proteins), modulate chromosome structure and function in most eukaryotes. Unlike other trypanosomatids, the genome of Leishmania species is unusually GC-rich, and the regulation of Leishmania chromosome structure, replication, partitioning is not fully understood. Because AT-hook proteins modulate these functions in other eukaryotes, we examined whether AT-hook proteins are encoded in the Leishmania genome, to test their potential functions. Several Leishmania ORFs predicted to be AT-hook proteins were identified using in silico approaches based on sequences shared between eukaryotic AT-hook proteins. We have used biochemical, molecular and cellular techniques to characterize the L. amazonensis ortholog of the L. major protein LmjF06.0720, a potential AT-hook protein that is highly conserved in Leishmania species. Using a novel fusion between the AT-hook domain encoded by LmjF06.0720 and a herpesviral protein, we have demonstrated that LmjF06.0720 functions as an AT-hook protein in mammalian cells. Further, as observed for mammalian and viral AT-hook proteins, the AT-hook domains of LmjF06.0720 bind specific regions of condensed mammalian metaphase chromosomes, and support the licensed replication of DNA in mammalian cells. LmjF06.0720 is nuclear in Leishmania, and this localization is disrupted upon exposure to drugs that displace AT-hook proteins from AT-rich DNA. Coincidentally, these drugs dramatically alter the cellular physiology of Leishmania promastigotes. Finally, we have devised a novel peptido-mimetic agent derived from the sequence of LmjF06.0720 that blocks the proliferation of Leishmania promastigotes, and lowers amastigote parasitic burden in infected macrophages. Our results indicate that AT-hook proteins are critical for the normal biology of Leishmania. In addition, we have described a simple technique to examine the function of Leishmania chromatin-binding proteins in a eukaryotic context amenable to studying chromosome structure and function. Lastly, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of compounds directed against AT-hook proteins in Leishmania.
Diametrically opposed effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress on two viral transactivators
Amber T Washington, Gyanendra Singh, Ashok Aiyar
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-93
Abstract: Our results indicate that unlike EBNA1, Tat is less active during hypoxia. Agents that generate hydroxyl and superoxide radicals reduce EBNA1's activity but increase transactivation by Tat. The cellular redox modulator, APE1/Ref-1, increases EBNA1's activity, without any effect on Tat. Conversely, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRR1) reduces Tat's function without any effect on EBNA1.We conclude that oxygen partial pressure and oxidative stress affects the functions of EBNA1 and Tat in a dramatically opposed fashion. Tat is more active during oxidative stress, whereas EBNA1's activity is compromised under these conditions. The two proteins respond to differing cellular redox modulators, suggesting that the oxidized cysteine adduct is a disulfide bond(s) in Tat, but sulfenic acid in EBNA1. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on transactivator function suggests that changes in redox may underlie differences in virus-infected cells dependent upon the physiological niches they traffic to.The human body contains multiple niches that vary greatly in oxygen tension. For example, lymph nodes have oxygen partial pressure (pO2) ranging from 10-20 Torr (1-2.5% O2) [1-3]. In contrast, peripheral blood has an average level of 10-12% oxygen [ibid, [4]]. It is known that the activity of many mammalian transactivators is sensitive to changes in oxygen tension, leading to niche-specific gene expression patterns [5-9]. For years it has been noted that oxidative conditions alter gene expression in many pathogens [10-15]. Furthermore, oxygen tension is known to affect the activity of many viral proteins, including transactivators, thus changing the outcome of viral infection [16-18].One such virus that displays this characteristic is the lymphotropic human herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is latent in B-cells that exist in the peripheral circulation as non-dividing memory B-cells; within lymph nodes EBV-infected cells become proliferating blasts that secrete antibody [19,20]. The
Extremophiles: A Novel Source of Industrially Important Enzymes
Lokendra Kumar,Gyanendra Awasthi,Balvinder Singh
Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: Microbial life does not seem to be limited to specific environments. During the past few decades it has become clear that microbial communities can be found in the most diverse conditions, including extremes of temperature, pressure, salinity and pH. These microorganisms, called extremophiles, produce biocatalysts that are functional under extreme conditions. Consequently, the unique properties of these biocatalysts have resulted in several novel applications of enzymes in industrial processes. From recent study, major approaches to extending the range of applications of extremozymes have emerged. Both the discovery of new extremophilic species and the determination of genome sequences provide a route to new enzymes, with the possibility that these will lead to novel applications. Only a minor fraction of the microorganisms on earth have been exploited. Novel developments in the cultivation and production of extremophiles but also developments related to the cloning and expression of their genes in heterologous hosts, will increase the number of enzyme-driven transformations in chemical, food, pharmaceutical and other industrial applications. Of equal importance directed evolutions provide approaches to improve enzyme stability and modify specificity in ways that may not exist in the natural world.
Is Serum Transforming Growth Factor beta-1 Superior to Serum Creatinine for assessing Renal Failure and Renal Transplant Rejection
Gyanendra Kumar Sonkar, Usha,R. G Singh
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2009,
Abstract: A sustained overexpression of Transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGF beta1), a cytokine has beenimplicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis of kidney leading to end stage . The main aim of present studywas to find the utility of TGF beta1 and serum creatinine in differentiating chronic renal failure (CRF)from acute renal failure (ARF), renal transplant rejection (Tx Rej) and stable renal transplant (Tx Stb)and to study has attempted histopathological correlation of rejection cases with TGF beta1 and serumcreatinine. TGF beta1 was determined by using ELISA and serum creatinine was done by autoanalyser.In normal healthy controls (NHC), in majority of cases (80.0%) TGF beta1 was below 25 ng/ml while in6.0% cases it was upto 34 ng/ml. Rise of TGF beta1 was significant in CRF patients as compared to ARFand NHC (p<0.05) .In rejection cases, TGF beta1 level was significantly raised as compared to NHCand stable graft cases (p<0.05). In rejection cases, it was raised above 40 ng/ml in only 50% cases. In twocases inspite of more than 70% glomerular fibrosis, the patient had TGF beta1 level of only 5 ng/ml and inother three cases of acute cellular rejection the level was 70, 35 and 28 ng/ml respectively.Contrary to itserum creatinine was raised above 2 mg/dl in all cases of transplant rejection but in stable transplant casesin majority (70.6%) it was below 1.5 mg/dl and in 5 cases it was between 1.5 – 1.9 mg/dl.Thus the studysuggests that TGF beta1 may not be a good marker for chronic transplant rejection, as it does notcorrelate well with glomerular fibrosis, probably it is more associated with interstitial inflammation but itcan differentiate CRF from ARF if cut off of 40 ng/ml is taken.
Application of high performance liquid chromatography to the determination and validation of levodopa in methanolic extract of Mucuna utilis
Singh Raman,Saini Pawan,Mathur Satish,Singh Gyanendra
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: A sensitive, precise and accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the analysis of levodopa in methanolic extract of Mucuna utilis. The method utilises sample preparation step followed by separation on a Eurosphere C18, 250 Χ 4.0 mm, 5 m particle size column, using methanol and 0.5% v/v acetic acid in the ratio of 70:30 v/v as the mobile phase. Analysis of levodopa was carried out in the absorbance mode at 284 nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision (inter and intra day), accuracy, Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ). The proposed HPLC method was found to be precise, specific, accurate and can be used for the identification and quantitative determination of levodopa in herbal extracts.
Determination of bacoside A by HPTLC in Bacopa monnieri extract
Prakash Om,Singh Gyanendra,Singh Raman,Mathur Satish
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2008,
Abstract: A simple sensitive HPTLC method developed for the determination of bacoside A in the plant Bacopa monnieri extracts. The stationary phase was precoated silica gel GF254. The mobile phase used was dichloromethane: methanol: water (4.5: 1.0: 0.1 v/v/v). The plate was scanned and quantified at 225 nm for bacoside A. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and specificity. The proposed HPTLC method provides a faster and cost effective qualitative control for routine analysis of bacoside A in extracts containing Bacopa monnieri saponins.
Wheat Production in India: Technologies to Face Future Challenges
Rajbir Yadav,S S Singh,Neelu Jain,Gyanendra pratap Singh
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v2n2p164
Abstract: To meet the growing demands under the constrains of depleting natural resources, environmental fluctuation and increased risk of epidemic outbreak, the task of increasing wheat production has become daunting. The euphoria generated by first green revolution is very quickly subsiding and the second generation problems are becoming more intense with each passing year. The factors responsible for first green revolution seem to be exhausting rapidly and there is immediate need to develop the technologies which can not only increase the wheat production but also sustain at higher level without adversely affecting the natural resources. More investment on germplasm improvement, conservation agriculture including breeding for varieties adaptive to conservation agriculture, hybrid wheats, broadening the genetic base of the varieties at farmers level, wide scale utilization of alien translocations in the breeding programme along with integration of marker assisted selection and other innovative approaches with traditional breeding methods are some of the technologies which can yield dividend in the coming years.
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