Abstract:
We give a characterization of the line digraph of a regular digraph. We make use of the characterization, to show that the underlying digraph of a coined quantum random walk is a line digraph. We remark the connection between line digraphs and in-split graphs in symbolic dynamics.

Abstract:
The Schmidt measure was introduced by Eisert and Briegel for quantifying the degree of entanglement of multipartite quantum systems [Phys. Rev. A 64, 022306 (2001)]. Although generally intractable, it turns out that there is a bound on the Schmidt measure for two-colorable graph states [Phys. Rev. A 69, 062311 (2004)]. For these states, the Schmidt measure is in fact directly related to the number of nonzero eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of the associated graph. We remark that almost all two-colorable graph states have maximal Schmidt measure and we construct specific examples. These involve perfect trees, line graphs of trees, cographs, graphs from anti-Hadamard matrices, and unyciclic graphs. We consider some graph transformations, with the idea of transforming a two-colorable graph state with maximal Schmidt measure into another one with the same property. In particular, we consider a transformation introduced by Francois Jaeger, line graphs, and switching. By making appeal to a result of Ehrenfeucht et al. [Discrete Math. 278 (2004)], we point out that local complementation and switching form a transitive group acting on the set of all graph states of a given dimension.

Abstract:
We consider a discrete-time dynamical process on graphs, firstly introduced in connection with a protocol for controlling large networks of spin 1/2 quantum mechanical particles [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 100501 (2007)]. A description is as follows: each vertex of an initially selected set has a packet of information (the same for every element of the set), which will be distributed among vertices of the graph; a vertex v can pass its packet to an adjacent vertex w only if w is its only neighbour without the information. By mean of examples, we describe some general properties, mainly concerning homeomorphism, and redundant edges. We prove that the cardinality of the smallest sets propagating the information in all vertices of a balanced m-ary tree of depth k is exactly (m^{k+1}+(-1)^{k})/(m+1). For binary trees, this number is related to alternating sign matrices.

Abstract:
A digraph D is the pattern of a matrix M when D has an arc ij if and only if the ij-th entry of M is nonzero. Study the relationship between unitary matrices and their patterns is motivated by works in quantum chaology and quantum computation. In this note, we prove that if a Cayley digraph is a line digraph then it is the pattern of a unitary matrix. We prove that for any finite group with two generators there exists a set of generators such that the Cayley digraph with respect to such a set is a line digraph and hence the pattern of a unitary matrix.

Abstract:
The support of a matrix M is the (0,1)-matrix with ij-th entry equal to 1 if the ij-th entry of M is non-zero, and equal to 0, otherwise. The digraph whose adjacency matrix is the support of M is said to be the digraph of M. This paper observes some structural properties of digraphs of unitary matrices.

Abstract:
We show that the adjacency matrix M of the line digraph of a d-regular digraph D on n vertices can be written as M=AB, where the matrix A is the Kronecker product of the all-ones matrix of dimension d with the identity matrix of dimension n and the matrix B is the direct sum of the adjacency matrices of the factors in a dicycle factorization of D.

Abstract:
We show that an n-th root of the Walsh-Hadamard transform (obtained from the Hadamard gate and a cyclic permutation of the qubits), together with two diagonal matrices, namely a local qubit-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary qubit) and a non-local phase-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary coefficient), can do universal quantum computation on n qubits. A quantum computation, making use of n qubits and based on these operations, is then a word of variable length, but whose letters are always taken from an alphabet of cardinality three. Therefore, in contrast with other universal sets, no choice of qubit lines is needed for the application of the operations described here. A quantum algorithm based on this set can be interpreted as a discrete diffusion of a quantum particle on a de Bruijn graph, corrected on-the-fly by auxiliary modifications of the phases associated to the arcs.

Abstract:
Given a matrix M of size n, a digraph D on n vertices is said to be the digraph of M, when M_{ij} is different from 0 if and only if (v_{i},v_{j}) is an arc of D. We give a necessary condition, called strong quadrangularity, for a digraph to be the digraph of a unitary matrix. With the use of such a condition, we show that a line digraph, LD, is the digraph of a unitary matrix if and only if D is Eulerian. It follows that, if D is strongly connected and LD is the digraph of a unitary matrix then LD is Hamiltonian. We conclude with some elementary observations. Among the motivations of this paper are coined quantum random walks, and, more generally, discrete quantum evolution on digraphs.

Abstract:
There is perfect state transfer between two vertices of a graph, if a single excitation can travel with fidelity one between the corresponding sites of a spin system modeled by the graph. When the excitation is back at the initial site, for all sites at the same time, the graph is said to be periodic. A graph is cubic if each of its vertices has a neighbourhood of size exactly three. We prove that the 3-dimensional cube is the only periodic, connected cubic graph with perfect state transfer. We conjecture that this is also the only connected cubic graph with perfect state transfer.

Abstract:
Many "good" topologies for interconnection networks are based on line digraphs of regular digraphs. These digraphs support unitary matrices. We propose the property "being the digraph of a unitary matrix" as additional criterion for the design of new interconnection networks. We define a composition of digraphs, which we call diagonal union. Diagonal union can be used to construct digraphs of unitary matrices. We remark that digraphs obtained via diagonal union are state split graphs, as defined in symbolic dynamics. Finally, we list some potential directions for future research.