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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10073 matches for " Simon Macharia Kamau "
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Applying Florence Nightingale’s Model of Nursing and the Environment on Multiple Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Infected Patients in the Kenyan Setting  [PDF]
Simon Macharia Kamau, Rose Jelagat Rotich, Brigid Chemutai Cheruiyot, Lily Chepketer Ng’eno
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101796
Abstract: Nurses in many resource limited settings have mostly used the medical model which failed to answer many of their concerns in managing tuberculosis infected patients. Florence Nightingale’s Model of Nursing and the Environment states that nurses manipulate and mediate the environment to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon. Nursing theory and models have been recognized as key components to evidence based practice today. Every nursing unit in developed countries employs at least one. Kenyan nurses need to realize this and embrace this principle. This article begins by expounding a commonly known, but not always well understood model by the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale. Methodology: The current study was a review and it applied Florence Nightingale’s Model of Nursing and the Environment on drug resistant tuberculosis infected patients in Kenyan. The format of this review was completed by using the authors’ adapted “Advanced Theory in Nursing” coursework materials. Secondary sources and seminal works by the theorist were also scrutinized. A case scenario was embedded that was somehow typical to maximize what could be learned about this theory. Conclusion: Nightingale’s model is a generic tool applicable to guide nursing care of clients infected with multiple/extremely drug resistant Tb with potential to improve nursing care and provide a basis for case studies.
An Advocacy Approach to Scaling up Involvement of Men in Maternal and Neonatal Child Health: A Model of Meteitei Sub-County of Kenya  [PDF]
Simon Macharia Kamau, Leah Chepkurui Ng’eno, Lily Chepketer Ng'eno
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103846
Male partners would tend to isolate themselves when it reaches a time when a woman is in the perinatal period. With men incorporated Meteitei region showcased that the death of another mother neonate or child was one too many, and was not excusable. Ultimately it should be possible to eliminate mother to child transmission of HIV. Method: This study employed advocacy approach. It is cognizant of the fact that the founder of modern nursing Florence Nightingale part of her success was related to advocacy and activism. In advocacy, the nurse leader should anticipate some controversies, and be ready to make rebuttals. It makes a case for male involvement in Maternal and Neonatal Child Health (MNCH) and also covers some contentious issues on the same as counter arguments in point forms and text boxes. The policy issue was a way of possibly scaling up the success story of Meteitei region Nandi County’s Chama cha Wazee male champions to the national level. Outcomes: This compilation was a modification to a policy issue entitled: Proposed Policy on Involvement of Men in Maternal and Neonatal Child Health which was submitted to The Senate alongside others in response to a requirement of public hearings. Hopefully, its due merits were considered. Advocacy tools like policy issue have an invaluable place in the future-now health care in nursing and midwifery.
Economic analysis of maize yield response to nitrogen and phosphorus in the sub-humid zones of western Kenya
M C Shiluli, C N Macharia, A W Kamau
African Crop Science Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Experiments were conducted in western Kenya to determine the agronomic and economic benefits of applying Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) to maize. These factors were identified through an informal survey to be the main cause of low maize yield in the area. The experiments were conducted in 2 locations on farmers' fields in 1994,1995 and1996. Four levels of Nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90-Kg ha-1) were combined with three levels of Phosphorus (0, 40, 80-Kg ha-1) to constitute twelve treatments which were tested on a randomized complete block design. Statistical analyses of yield data revealed that N application consistently affected grain yield significantly in all locations. Phosphorus had a significant effect on yield once in each location. There was significant nitrogen by phosphorus interaction (N*P) effects once in each location. Analysis across sites showed N and N*P interaction to be statistically significant. The statistically significant treatments of this experiment were subjected to economic analysis using the partial budget procedure to determine rates of N: P that would give acceptable returns at low risk to farmers. Economic analysis on the interaction across location showed that two N: P combinations i.e. 30:0 and 60: 40 kg ha-1 are economically superior and stable within a price variability range of 20%. Key Words: Dominance analysis, grain yield, interaction effects, partial budget, price variability Résumé Les expériences étaient conduites à l'Ouest du Kenya pour déterminer les bénéfices agronomiques et économiques de l'application de l'azote (N) et le phosphore (P) dans le champs de ma s. Ces facteurs étaient identifiés à travers un survey informel comme les causes majeures de faible rendement du ma s dans le milieu. Les expériences étaient conduites dans deux locations dans les champs de fermiers en 1994, 1995 et 1996. Quatre niveaux d'azote (0, 30, 60 et 90 kg ha-1) étaient combinés avec trois niveaux de phosphore (0, 40, 80 kg ha-1) pour constituer douze traitements qui étaient testés dans des blocs complétement au hazard. Les analyses statistiques des données de rendements ont montré que l'application de l'azote a affecté de manière consistente et significative le rendement en grains dans les différents endroits. Le phosphore avait un effet significatif sur le rendement à chaque endroit. L'interaction entre le phosphore et l'azote était significative. Les traitements statistiquement significatifs ont été soumis à une analyse économic utilisant la procédure du budget partiel pour déterminer les taux N:P qui donneraient des dividendes acceptables pour des faibles risques des fermiers. L'analyse économique sur l'intéraction entre les différentes locations a montré que les deux combinaisons i.e 30:0 et 60:40 kg ha-1 étaient économiquement supérieures et stables et avait une marge de variation de 20%. Mots Clés: Analyse de dominances, rendement en grains, effects d'intéraction, budget partiel, variation du prix (Af Crop Sci J 2003 Vol 11
Comparing Tree Heights among Montane Forest Blocks of Kenya Using LiDAR Data from GLAS  [PDF]
Mwangi James Kinyanjui, Ngugi John Kigomo, Kamau Miriam Wambui, Nderitu Joel Kariuki, Nyanjui Charles, Nganga John Macharia, Ojijo William Odidi, Ashiono Fredrick, Owate Augustine Omamo, Ndirangu Monicah Katumbi
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.51009
Abstract: This study was designed to use LiDAR data to research tree heights in montane forest blocks of Kenya. It uses a completely randomised block design to asses if differences exist in forest heights: 1) among montane forest blocks, 2) among Agro ecological zones (AEZ) within each forest block and 3) between similar AEZ in different forest blocks. Forest height data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICE-SAT) for the period 2003-2009 was used for 2146 circular plots, of 0.2 - 0.25 ha in size. Results indicate that, tree height is largely influenced by Agro ecological conditions and the wetter zones have taller trees in the upper, middle and lower highlands. In the upper highland zones of limited human activity, tree heights did not vary among forest blocks. Variations in height among forest blocks and within forest blocks were exaggerated in regions of active human intervention.
Africa’s Prospects in the Obama Presidency
Macharia Munene
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: There is a lot of curiosity on the direction that the relationship between Africa and the United States, which has, at times, been hostile and disappointing, amusing and inspirational, will take because of Obama's unusual background. He is a product, and a beneficiary, of the success of anti-colonial and civil rights struggles in Africa and the United States although he has little first hand knowledge of those struggles either as a victim or a victimizer. With an African father and an American mother, he is the first African-American to become president. Essentially a child of two worlds, he prefers the world of America as opposed to that of Africa.
Multiple colonialism in Western Sahara
Macharia Munene
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2010,
Abstract: The Sahrawi are a hybrid people found in parts of northwest Africa, mostly Western Sahara and they are victims of multiple colonialism. The decision by European powers to include parts of their land in various colonies subjected many Sahrawi to different French and Spanish colonial policies and experiences in Morocco, Algeria, Mauretania and Western Sahara. The Spaniards took control of Western Sahara and when they decided to leave, Morocco, with its irredentist dreams stepped in. Morocco became the new colonial power as it claimed Western Sahara territory as a province. It behaves in the same way as the French did when they claimed that Algeria was a province of France. Morocco exploited the prevailing international climate to advance its colonialistic proclivities at a time when territorial colonialism had become anathema internationally. That climate made the big powers, whether communistic or capitalistic, appear to support Morocco. This way their perceived interests seemed to dictate that they be in good books with Morocco and they thus condoned Morocco's annexationist designs. The fact that Morocco itself used to be colonized by the French and the Spaniards tends to hide the fact that it is a colonial power imposing itself on the Sahrawi.
Mirroring the Subtext: Postmodernism in Ngugi wa Thiongo's Wizard of the Crow:
OM Macharia
Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa , 2007,
Abstract: This reading of Ngugi wa Thiong'o's Wizard of the Crow attempts to place the text in the postmodern writing tradition. We point out how surrealistic features are utilized to enhance the themes, style, and the author's conundrums. Ngugi has been accused of focusing on ideologies at the expense of creativity. Wizard of the Crow is, however, a purely artistic text where Ngugi's creativity is plausibly developed, without hindering his ideological expression. The fact that the text was originally written in Gikuyu helps the writer draw from the resource of traditional discourse, and arguably enable not only Gikuyu culture, but also their worldview and history negotiate for a global position in line with emerging postmodern imperatives. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (1) 2007 pp. 67-74
état présent de la condition des intellectuelles congolaises : comment briser le cercle vicieux ?
Bodia Macharia
Voix Plurielles , 2010,
Abstract: Les mouvements d’indépendance au Congo Belge avaient favorisé l’épanouissement d’une pléthore d’écrivains et poètes ainsi que l’émergence d’une écriture féminine, que la décadence socio-économique due aux trente-deux ans de dictature Mobutienne est venue démanteler. Tout en énumérant une liste succincte des écrivaines congolaises locales et expatriées, cet article fait un survol des conditions de productions littéraires que ces femmes rencontrent en République Démocratique du Congo et à l’extérieur.
Roll Back Malaria and the new partnership for Africa\'s development: Is there potential for synergistic collaboration in partnerships?
EM Kamau
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: This synopsis seeks to highlight and promote the enormous potential that exists between these two initiatives that seek to address closely related issues and targeting the same populations at risk within a fairly well defined geographical setting. It also attempts to argue that malaria control, just like HIV-Aids control be given high priority in the New Partnership for Africa\'s Development (NEPAD) health agenda, as current statistics indicate that malaria is again on the rise. While much attention and billions of dollars have rightly been given to HIV-Aids research, treatment and prevention, malaria, and not Aids, is the region\'s leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children under the age of five years. This is the bad news. The good news is that unlike Aids, malaria treatment and prevention are relatively cheap. In addition, there is a payback to fighting malaria; support aimed directly at improving health, rather than poverty reduction, may be a more effective way of helping Africa to thrive. Robust and sustained growth may come to Africa through a mosquito net, Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs) or a malaria vaccine, rather that a donor\'s cheque for economic development initiatives. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 22-27
Malaria diagnosis in the community: Challenges and potential role of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the African Region.
EM Kamau
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: At present, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely available and used in parts of Asia and Latin America. In Africa, their use has been limited mainly to private health facilities. With the adoption of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) by most African countries as first line treatment for malaria, an effective, but expensive treatment is available, and the case for an expanded role for rapid diagnostics in the fight against malaria is clear. Despite this perceived potential role for RDTs, some challenges hinder their introduction and scale-up in the public health sector. Among the requirements are significant investments in policy development, training, infrastructure, and supply chain and quality assurance systems. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 114-117
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