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Pattern Recognition in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Defined by High Content Peptide Microarray Chip Analysis Representing 61 Proteins from M. tuberculosis
Simani Gaseitsiwe, Davide Valentini, Shahnaz Mahdavifar, Isabelle Magalhaes, Daniel F. Hoft, Johannes Zerweck, Mike Schutkowski, Jan Andersson, Marie Reilly, Markus J. Maeurer
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003840
Abstract: Background Serum antibody-based target identification has been used to identify tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) for development of anti-cancer vaccines. A similar approach can be helpful to identify biologically relevant and clinically meaningful targets in M.tuberculosis (MTB) infection for diagnosis or TB vaccine development in clinically well defined populations. Method We constructed a high-content peptide microarray with 61 M.tuberculosis proteins as linear 15 aa peptide stretches with 12 aa overlaps resulting in 7446 individual peptide epitopes. Antibody profiling was carried with serum from 34 individuals with active pulmonary TB and 35 healthy individuals in order to obtain an unbiased view of the MTB epitope pattern recognition pattern. Quality data extraction was performed, data sets were analyzed for significant differences and patterns predictive of TB+/?. Findings Three distinct patterns of IgG reactivity were identified: 89/7446 peptides were differentially recognized (in 34/34 TB+ patients and in 35/35 healthy individuals) and are highly predictive of the division into TB+ and TB?, other targets were exclusively recognized in all patients with TB (e.g. sigmaF) but not in any of the healthy individuals, and a third peptide set was recognized exclusively in healthy individuals (35/35) but no in TB+ patients. The segregation between TB+ and TB? does not cluster into specific recognition of distinct MTB proteins, but into specific peptide epitope ‘hotspots’ at different locations within the same protein. Antigen recognition pattern profiles in serum from TB+ patients from Armenia vs. patients recruited in Sweden showed that IgG-defined MTB epitopes are very similar in individuals with different genetic background. Conclusions A uniform target MTB IgG-epitope recognition pattern exists in pulmonary tuberculosis. Unbiased, high-content peptide microarray chip-based testing of clinically well-defined populations allows to visualize biologically relevant targets useful for development of novel TB diagnostics and vaccines.
Whole CMV Proteome Pattern Recognition Analysis after HSCT Identifies Unique Epitope Targets Associated with the CMV Status
Lena Pérez-Bercoff, Davide Valentini, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Shahnaz Mahdavifar, Mike Schutkowski, Thomas Poiret, ?sa Pérez-Bercoff, Per Ljungman, Markus J. Maeurer
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089648
Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represents a vital complication after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). We screened the entire CMV proteome to visualize the humoral target epitope-focus profile in serum after HSCT. IgG profiling from four patient groups (donor and/or recipient +/? for CMV) was performed at 6, 12 and 24 months after HSCT using microarray slides containing 17174 of 15mer-peptides overlapping by 4 aa covering 214 proteins from CMV. Data were analyzed using maSigPro, PAM and the ‘exclusive recognition analysis (ERA)’ to identify unique CMV epitope responses for each patient group. The ‘exclusive recognition analysis’ of serum epitope patterns segregated best 12 months after HSCT for the D+/R+ group (versus D?/R?). Epitopes were derived from UL123 (IE1), UL99 (pp28), UL32 (pp150), this changed at 24 months to 2 strongly recognized peptides provided from UL123 and UL100. Strongly (IgG) recognized CMV targets elicited also robust cytokine production in T-cells from patients after HSCT defined by intracellular cytokine staining (IL-2, TNF, IFN and IL-17). High-content peptide microarrays allow epitope profiling of entire viral proteomes; this approach can be useful to map relevant targets for diagnostics and therapy in patients with well defined clinical endpoints. Peptide microarray analysis visualizes the breadth of B-cell immune reconstitution after HSCT and provides a useful tool to gauge immune reconstitution.
Application of a Data-Driven Fuzzy Control Design to a Wind Turbine Benchmark Model
Silvio Simani
Advances in Fuzzy Systems , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/504368
Application of a Data-Driven Fuzzy Control Design to a Wind Turbine Benchmark Model
Silvio Simani
Advances in Fuzzy Systems , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/504368
Abstract: In general, the modelling of wind turbines is a challenging task, since they are complex dynamic systems, whose aerodynamics are nonlinear and unsteady. Accurate models should contain many degrees of freedom, and their control algorithm design must account for these complexities. However, these algorithms must capture the most important turbine dynamics without being too complex and unwieldy, mainly when they have to be implemented in real-time applications. The first contribution of this work consists of providing an application example of the design and testing through simulations, of a data-driven fuzzy wind turbine control. In particular, the strategy is based on fuzzy modelling and identification approaches to model-based control design. Fuzzy modelling and identification can represent an alternative for developing experimental models of complex systems, directly derived directly from measured input-output data without detailed system assumptions. Regarding the controller design, this paper suggests again a fuzzy control approach for the adjustment of both the wind turbine blade pitch angle and the generator torque. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is assessed on the data sequences acquired from the considered wind turbine benchmark. Several experiments provide the evidence of the advantages of the proposed regulator with respect to different control methods. 1. Introduction Wind turbines are complex nonlinear dynamic systems forced by gravity and stochastic wind disturbance, which are affected by gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. Their aerodynamics are nonlinear and unsteady, whilst their rotors are subject to complicated turbulent wind inflow fields driving fatigue loading. Therefore, wind turbine modelling and control represent complex and challenging tasks [1, 2]. Accurate models have to contain many degrees of freedom in order to capture the most important dynamic effects. It is clear that the design of control algorithms for wind turbines has to take into account these complexities. On the other hand, control algorithms must capture the most important turbine dynamics, without being too complex and unwieldy [1, 3]. Today’s wind turbines employ different control actuation and strategies to achieve the required goals and performances. Some turbines perform the control action through passive methods, such as in fixed-pitch, stall control machines. In these machines, the blades are designed so that the power is limited above rated wind speed through the blade stall. Thus, no pitch mechanism is needed [1]. On the other
Self-Tuning Control Techniques for Wind Turbine and Hydroelectric Plant Systems  [PDF]
Silvio Simani, Stefano Alvisi, Mauro Venturini
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.71003
Abstract: The interest on the use of renewable energy resources is increasing, especially towards wind and hydro powers, which should be efficiently converted into electric energy via suitable technology tools. To this aim, self-tuning control techniques represent viable strategies that can be employed for this purpose, due to the features of these nonlinear dynamic processes working over a wide range of operating conditions, driven by stochastic inputs, excitations and disturbances. Some of the considered methods were already verified on wind turbine systems, and important advantages may thus derive from the appropriate implementation of the same control schemes for hydroelectric plants. This represents the key point of the work, which provides some guidelines on the design and the application of these control strategies to these energy conversion systems. In fact, it seems that investigations related with both wind and hydraulic energies present a reduced number of common aspects, thus leading to little exchange and share of possible common points. This consideration is particularly valid with reference to the more established wind area when compared to hydroelectric systems. In this way, this work recalls the models of wind turbine and hydroelectric system, and investigates the application of different control solutions. Another important point of this investigation regards the analysis of the exploited benchmark models, their control objectives, and the development of the control solutions. The working conditions of these energy conversion systems will also be taken into account in order to highlight the reliability and robustness characteristics of the developed control strategies, especially interesting for remote and relatively inaccessible location of many installations.
Fuzzy Modelling and Control of the Air System of a Diesel Engine
S. Simani,M. Bonfè
Advances in Fuzzy Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/450259
Abstract: This paper proposes a fuzzy modelling approach oriented to the design of a fuzzy controller for regulating the fresh airflow of a real diesel engine. This strategy has been suggested for enhancing the regulator design that could represent an alternative to the standard embedded BOSCH controller, already implemented in the Engine Control Unit (ECU), without any change to the engine instrumentation. The air system controller project requires the knowledge of a dynamic model of the diesel engine, which is achieved by means of the suggested fuzzy modelling and identification scheme. On the other hand, the proposed fuzzy PI controller structure is straightforward and easy to implement with respect to different strategies proposed in literature. The results obtained with the designed fuzzy controller are compared to those of the traditional embedded BOSCH controller.
Design and Analysis of Robust Fault Diagnosis Schemes for a Simulated Aircraft Model
M. Benini,M. Bonfè,P. Castaldi,W. Geri,S. Simani
Journal of Control Science and Engineering , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/274313
Abstract: Several procedures for sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) applied to a simulated model of a commercial aircraft are presented. The main contributions of the paper are related to the design and the optimisation of two FDI schemes based on a linear polynomial method (PM) and the nonlinear geometric approach (NLGA). The FDI strategies are applied to the aircraft model, characterised by tight-coupled longitudinal and lateral dynamics. The robustness and the reliability properties of the residual generators related to the considered FDI techniques are investigated and verified by simulating a general aircraft reference trajectory. Extensive simulations exploiting the Monte Carlo analysis tool are also used for assessing the overall performance capabilities of the developed FDI schemes, in the presence of turbulence, measurement, and model errors. Comparisons with other disturbance-decoupling methods for FDI based on neural networks (NNs) and unknown input kalman filter (UIKF) are finally reported.
Rabies antibody levels in pregnant women and their newborns after rabies post-exposure prophylaxis
Ahmad Fayaz,Susan Simani,Vida Fallahian,Ali Eslamifar
Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Rabies is a fatal infectious disease and rabies post-exposure prophylaxis is the method of choice for prevention of human rabies.Case series: We report rabies antibody levels in cord blood and also in serum of pregnant women who were bitten by suspected animals to rabies and were immunized by purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and Human Rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) serum. During the years of 2007-2010, six pregnant women by the age range of 22-35 years were admitted in treatment and prevention of rabies center in Pasture institute of Iran, in Tehran. Among them two cases were at first trimester, one at second trimester and three at third trimester of conception. The interval between biting with delivery was 5-265 days (mean 121 days).Conclusion: Results of immunoglobulin illustrate that levels of rabies antibody in maternal sera with the fetus are not equal and uniform but it is proved that baby will find efficient immunity as well with minimum protective level of 0.5 IU/ml in all cases except a newborn whom had been born just 5 days after the mother’s immunization and in a shorter time than the appropriate immunization of the mother who had received her second vaccination courses.
Geographical Distribution of Animal Bite and Rabies in the Caspian Sea Littoral Provinces During 2002-2007
V Mazaheri,K Holakouie Naieni,S Simani,M Yunesian
Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Rabies, a viral and zoonotic disease, causes acute and fetal encephalitis in humans and other mammals and is a cause of death in developing countries. It is usually transmitted by animal bite, but other routes of transmission are mucus membranes, breathing, placenta, contaminated instruments, and organ implanting. This study shows the mapping of geographical distribution of animal bite cases, rabies, and death due rabies in 3 Caspian Sea littoral provinces, namely, Golestan, Mazandaran, and Gilan.Materials and Methods: Data on human and animal rabies cases and animal bites were collected from the Reference Rabies Center of the Pasteur Institute in Tehran and the Rabies Diagnosis Section of the Amol Research Center during 2002-2007.The data was analyzed by the SPSS (11.5) software and mapping was done by Arc GIS 9.2. Results: During the 6-year period, of the 670,743 animal bite cases reported in Iran 63890 (9.5%) had occurred in Golestan, 25,767 (3.8%) in Mazandaran, and 22,874 (3.4%) in Gilan. The distribution of animal bite cases in the 3 provinces was as follows: Agh ghala, Bandar Torkaman, Azad shahr and Kolaleh in Golestan; Galugah, Behshahr, Ramsar and Neka in Mazandaran; and Shaft, Masal, Siahkal and Fuman in Gilan. The data also showed that of the total 2,312 animal rabies cases, in Iran, 9.22% had been reported from Golestan, 4% from Mazandaran, and 2.6% from Gilan. Furthermore, animal rabies cases had occurred mostly in Gonbadekavoos, Bandar Torkaman, Gorgan and Kolaleh in the Golestan Province; Behshahr, Neka and Chalus in the Mazandaran Province; and Masal, Fuman and Rezvanshahr in the Gilan Province. The most important disease vector (91.3%) for both human and animal rabies was the dog. A total of 41 human deaths due to rabies had been reported during the period, 2 being from Mazandaran. Conclusion: The results show that a more effective disease control and surveillance system is essential and can help improve planning for service provision in the health care centers.
Relative Frequency of Animal Rabies and Factors Affecting it in Kerman Province, 1993 - 2003
A R Bahonar,H Rashidi,S Simani,A Fayaz
Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Rabies is one of the oldest and most serious zoonoses in the world. In Iran, the disease has been reported from most of the provinces and among domestic as well as wild animals. This study was conducted in the province of Kerman and aimed to assess the frequency and epidemiological features of suspected and confirmed animal rabies cases from 1993 to 2003.Material and Methods: During the study period, all cases of suspected animals (brain specimens) had sent to Pasteur institute of Iran for pathological (Negri bodies) examinations. After collecting data on variables such as species of animal, city, season, annual rainfall and temperature, analysis was performed by calculation of Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi square, Fishers exact, Students and Kolmogorov Smirnov tests using the SPSS package (ver.11.5). Results: From 362 suspected brain samples, 301 (83.1%) had positive serologic and pathological results. We recorded an ascending trend over the study period (p=0.01). The effect of seasonal variations on the frequency of suspected and confirmed cases of animal rabies was significant (p<.001): most cases occurred in winter and fall. The relative frequencies of confirmed cases among the animals were as follows:As for domestic animals, the infection rate in cows was 81.45 %; sheep and goats 10.63%; dogs and cats, 4 %; camels 1.33% and donkeys, 0.7%. Among wild animals (foxes, mongooses, wolves and jackals) the rate was 1.89%. Among wild animals, the total infection rate was 60 %. Concerning the role of predatory animals in the transmission of rabies to domestic animals, among the cases which had been confirmed (28 cases), the predator species were: foxes 50%, wolves 7%, mongooses and jackals 3%. Considering the relationship between frequency of animal rabies and ecological variations in the province of Kerman, the results of this survey showed that there is some correlation between decreased rainfall (drought) and the resurgence of animal rabies (r=0.34, P=0.001).Conclusion: The increasing number of stray dogs and the migration of these and wild animals to cities and villages could be an important factor in the spread of rabies in the region. Among various predatory species, the role of foxes in disease transmission merits further investigation.
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