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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8990 matches for " Silvia Minoia "
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Included or excluded? Civil society, local agency and the support given by European aid programmes
Paola Minoia
Fennia : International Journal of Geography , 2012,
Abstract: This article analyses some problems emerging in aid practices aimed to support civil society in developing countries. First, it reports the debate emerged in critical development studies regarding non-state actors, and particularly nongovernmental organizations, which have progressively substituted public institutions in service provision and in representative forums, often as a consequence of external pressures made by international donors. Secondly, it analyses the European aid programme named “Non-State Actors and Local Authorities in Development”, whose aim is to fight poverty and increase governance through actions empowering local organisations. More specifically, it evaluates the programme’s coherence and effectiveness in five visited countries (Georgia, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Zimbabwe, Rwanda and Cameroon) and, particularly, in two projects based in Rwanda. These two case studies show very different results as far as local involvement. Interviews, field visits and analyses of project reports reveal the diverse nature of the various organizations that compose the non-state actors, and their different capacity to express local agency. External donors need to redefine their aid relations in a way to effectively empower the most vulnerable groups.
A new mutant genetic resource for tomato crop improvement by TILLING technology
Silvia Minoia, Angelo Petrozza, Olimpia D'Onofrio, Florence Piron, Giuseppina Mosca, Giovanni Sozio, Francesco Cellini, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Filomena Carriero
BMC Research Notes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-3-69
Abstract: To apply TILLING to tomato, a new mutant collection was generated in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar Red Setter by treating seeds with two different ethylemethane sulfonate doses (0.7% and 1%). An associated phenotype database, LycoTILL, was developed and a TILLING platform was also established. The interactive and evolving database is available online to the community for phenotypic alteration inquiries. To validate the Red Setter TILLING platform, induced point mutations were searched in 7 tomato genes with the mismatch-specific ENDO1 nuclease. In total 9.5 kb of tomato genome were screened and 66 nucleotide substitutions were identified. The overall mutation density was estimated and it resulted to be 1/322 kb and 1/574 kb for the 1% EMS and 0.7% EMS treatment respectively.The mutation density estimated in our collection and its comparison with other TILLING populations demonstrate that the Red Setter genetic resource is suitable for use in high-throughput mutation discovery. The Red Setter TILLING platform is open to the research community and is publicly available via web for requesting mutation screening services.Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable plants in the world. Its fruits are end products both for the fresh market and food processing industry. Tomato presents a relatively small genome highly syntenic to others economically important Solanaceae species and was selected as a reference species for sequencing a Solanaceae genome. In addition to the availability of a number of genomic resources, including transcriptome [1-3] and metabolome [4], large collections of genetic resources are available to dissect the biochemical and the metabolic pathways in tomato [5]. Large EMS and fast neutron mutant collections, in the background of M82 tomato cultivar, have been generated and more then 3,000 phenotype alterations catalogued [6]. An EMS-induced mutation library of the miniature dwarf tomato cultivar Mi
Allergological and Toxicological Aspects in a Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Cohort
Paolo D. Pigatto,Claudio Minoia,Anna Ronchi,Lucia Brambilla,Silvia M. Ferrucci,Francesco Spadari,Manuela Passoni,Francesco Somalvico,Gian Paolo Bombeccari,Gianpaolo Guzzi
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/356235
Abstract: Background. Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by an exaggerated response to toxicants. We ascertained the prevalence of allergy to metals and toxicological aspects in MCS patients. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 41 patients with MCS. We performed patch testing ( ) for dental series and did lymphocyte transformation test ( ) for metals. We measured mercury in samples of blood ( ), urine ( ), saliva ( ), and scalp hair ( ) to investigate the association between mercury levels and cases of MCS. Results. The prevalence of metal immune hypersensitivity in a subset of 26 patients was 92.3 percent. Elevations of mercury occurred in 81.2 percent (26 of 32). The mean (±SD) in blood concentrations of mercury was ?μg/L; mean in urine was ?μg/L; mean in scalp hair was ?μg/g; mean in saliva was ?μg/L. Subgroup analyses showed that elevation of mercury levels in biological matrices were associated with mercury amalgams in patients with MCS (22 patients), compared with controls (8 patients) (odds ratio 11?:?95 percent confidence interval 1.5 to 81.6; ). Conclusions. Our data show an increased prevalence of metal allergy and elevation of mercury levels in bioindicators among patients with MCS. 1. Introduction Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)—also termed idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)—is a chronic condition characterized by an exaggerated body response to chemical toxicants, especially organic solvents [1–6]. The symptoms experienced and reported by patients are usually of the respiratory, musculoskeletal [7], and gastrointestinal tracts [8–12]. Symptoms of hyperosmia [13] of the brain are commonly described in patients with MCS when exposed to chemical substances [14, 15]. Thus, it has long been thought that MCS has a strong environmental component [16–20]. The prevalence of MCS is reported to range from 10 to 15 percent in the general population [21, 22] and its pathogenesis remains elusive. Numerous mechanisms have been implicated in the etiologic process of MCS, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) sensitization [23, 24], peroxynitrite and nitric oxide elevation [24, 25], oxidative stress [26, 27], proinflammatory cytokines [26, 27], altered redox enzymes [26, 27], cytochrome P450 metabolism [26–28], hypoxia [29], serotonin receptors [30], neural sensitization [17, 31–35], and neurogenic inflammation [36]. As a consequence, various studies have suggested that persistent symptoms of MCS impaired health-related quality of life in these patients [37, 38]. And there is evidence
Jukka K?yhk?,Paola Minoia
Fennia : International Journal of Geography , 2012,
Transcriptome analysis of the mobile genome ICEclc in Pseudomonas knackmussii B13
Muriel Gaillard, Nicolas Pradervand, Marco Minoia, Vladimir Sentchilo, David R Johnson, Jan van der Meer
BMC Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-153
Abstract: Here we study the transcriptional organization of the ICEclc core region. By northern hybridizations, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'-RACE) fifteen transcripts were mapped in the core region. The occurrence and location of those transcripts were further confirmed by hybridizing labeled cDNA to a semi-tiling micro-array probing both strands of the ICEclc core region. Dot blot and semi-tiling array hybridizations demonstrated most of the core transcripts to be upregulated during stationary phase on 3-chlorobenzoate, but not on succinate or glucose.The transcription analysis of the ICEclc core region provides detailed insights in the mode of regulatory organization and will help to further understand the complex mode of behavior of this class of mobile elements. We conclude that ICEclc core transcription is concerted at a global level, more reminiscent of a phage program than of plasmid conjugation.The acquisition of horizontally transferred genes plays an important role in prokaryotic evolution [1]. The colonization of new ecological niches is often enabled by the acquisition of foreign genes, which can be transmitted by a large variety of mobile genetic elements (MGE) present in individual members of the microbial community. In terms of evolutionary success, it is thus interesting to understand how different mobile DNA elements control their mobility and may adapt to their bacterial host [2].Various classes of MGE are known, the most well-studied of which are plasmids and bacteriophages [3,4]. Plasmids, apart from certain exceptions such as the F-episome in Escherichia coli, generally occur as extrachromosomal DNA in the bacterial cell. An important aspect of their life-style, therefore, is to ensure replication, stability and maintenance in the host cell [5], and a variety of control mechanisms have evolved hereto [6]. Conjugative plasmids encode and orchestrate specific machineries to produce the tra
Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives (alpha and beta zearalenol) on apoptosis and proliferation of cultured granulosa cells from equine ovaries
Fiorenza Minervini, Alessandra Giannoccaro, Francesca Fornelli, Maria Dell'Aquila, Paolo Minoia, Angelo Visconti
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-4-62
Abstract: The cell proliferation was evaluated by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test after 3 days exposure at different concentrations of ZEA and its derivatives (from 1 × 10-7 to 0.1 microM). The apoptosis induction was evaluated after 1 day exposure, by DNA analysis using flow cytometry.An increase in cell proliferation with respect to the control was observed in the presence of ZEA at 1 × 10-3 and 1 × 10-4 microM and apoptosis was induced by all mycotoxins at different concentrations.The simultaneous presence of apoptosis and proliferation in GC cultures treated with zearalenones could indicate that these mycotoxins could be effective in inducing follicular atresia. These effects of zearalenones may result from both direct interaction with oestrogen-receptors as well as interaction with the enzymes 3alpha (beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endogenous steroid hormones. These cellular disturbances, described for the first time in equine GCs cultured in vitro, could be hypothesized as referred to reproductive failures of unknown ethiology in the mare.Many different mycotoxins have been recognized and isolated from a variety of Fusarium moulds and some of the disease states, caused by consumption of cereals containing these toxins in domestic animals as well as in humans, have been called fusariotoxicoses. Zearalenone (ZEA) and related compounds α and β zearalenol (α and β-ZOL) and α and β zearalanol (α and β-ZAL) are synthesized by a number of species of Fusarium such as F. graminearum, F. tricinctum, F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum [1].Sensitivity to the effects of mycotoxins is related to species-dependent biotransformation pathways. Zearalenone is metabolized via two pathways in hepatocytes and intestinal cells, namely conjugation with glucuronic acid and reduction to α and β-ZOL by 3 α(β)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) [2-4]. These reactions show similarities to processe
Radio Properties of REX BL Lacs and Galaxies
Anna Wolter,A. Caccianiga,T. Maccacaro,R. Della Ceca,I. M. Gioia,F. Cavallotti,M. Minoia
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Detailed VLA observations have been gathered for a number of sources classified as either BL Lacs or galaxies, derived from the REX survey. We focus in particular on the sources identified by us, for which we have in hand homogeneous optical data, to study in more detail than allowed by the NVSS the radio properties of these sources in the framework of AGN unified models.
Cellular Variability of RpoS Expression Underlies Subpopulation Activation of an Integrative and Conjugative Element
Ryo Miyazaki equal contributor,Marco Minoia equal contributor,Nicolas Pradervand,Sandra Sulser,Friedrich Reinhard,Jan Roelof van der Meer
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002818
Abstract: Conjugative transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICEclc in the bacterium Pseudomonas knackmussii is the consequence of a bistable decision taken in some 3% of cells in a population during stationary phase. Here we study the possible control exerted by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS on the bistability decision. The gene for RpoS in P. knackmussii B13 was characterized, and a loss-of-function mutant was produced and complemented. We found that, in absence of RpoS, ICEclc transfer rates and activation of two key ICEclc promoters (Pint and PinR) decrease significantly in cells during stationary phase. Microarray and gene reporter analysis indicated that the most direct effect of RpoS is on PinR, whereas one of the gene products from the PinR-controlled operon (InrR) transmits activation to Pint and other ICEclc core genes. Addition of a second rpoS copy under control of its native promoter resulted in an increase of the proportion of cells expressing the Pint and PinR promoters to 18%. Strains in which rpoS was replaced by an rpoS-mcherry fusion showed high mCherry fluorescence of individual cells that had activated Pint and PinR, whereas a double-copy rpoS-mcherry–containing strain displayed twice as much mCherry fluorescence. This suggested that high RpoS levels are a prerequisite for an individual cell to activate PinR and thus ICEclc transfer. Double promoter–reporter fusions confirmed that expression of PinR is dominated by extrinsic noise, such as being the result of cellular variability in RpoS. In contrast, expression from Pint is dominated by intrinsic noise, indicating it is specific to the ICEclc transmission cascade. Our results demonstrate how stochastic noise levels of global transcription factors can be transduced to a precise signaling cascade in a subpopulation of cells leading to ICE activation.
Cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 and FSH receptor mRNA expression in equine cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured in vitro in the presence of FSH and precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis
Maria Dell'Aquila, Maud Caillaud, Filippo Maritato, Alain Martoriati, Nadine Gérard, Giulio Aiudi, Paolo Minoia, Ghylène Goudet
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-2-44
Abstract: In mammals, embryos produced in vitro, in sequential steps of oocyte maturation in vitro (IVM), conventional fertilization in vitro (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo culture (EC), display marked differences from their in vivo counterparts with regard to morphology, timing of development, resistance to low temperature, metabolism and gene expression [1]. Thus, their clinical applications remain sub-optimal [2-4]. Evidence has emerged to support the involvement of various locally produced factors as co-regulators of folliculogenesis and oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in addition to extrinsic regulation by pituitary gonadotropins and metabolic hormones [5]. Optimal expansion of the cumulus mass appears to be essential for cytoplasmic maturation [6,7]. In the bovine, the induction of cumulus expansion prior to fertilization increased the incidence of oocyte penetration [8]. In the mouse, successful fertilization was correlated with the quantity and quality of the expanded cumulus mass [9]. In the mare, cumulus expansion in oocytes retrieved from excised ovaries of slaughtered mares has been related to granulosa cell apoptosis with no relation to follicle size. Expanded oocytes issuing from apoptotic follicles show increased meiotic competence, but not increased activation rate after ICSI [10].The process of cumulus expansion is accompanied by modifications of gap junctions, which contain transmembrane channels formed by hexamers of proteins belonging to the connexin family. Equine, bovine, ovine and mouse cumulus cells express connexin 43 proteins [11-15]. In equine, porcine and rat cumulus cells, initiation of meiotic resumption is associated with the reduction of connexin 43 protein level [11,16,17]. In the same way, during in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, the connexin 43-positive gap junctions disappeared [12]. Prostaglandin E2 are involved in cumulus expansion in vitro in mice [18], rats [19], and bovine [2
Magmas Overexpression Inhibits Staurosporine Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pituitary Adenoma Cell Lines
Federico Tagliati, Teresa Gagliano, Erica Gentilin, Mariella Minoia, Daniela Molè, Ettore C. delgi Uberti, Maria Chiara Zatelli
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075194
Abstract: Magmas is a nuclear gene that encodes for the mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase subunit Tim16. Magmas is overexpressed in the majority of human pituitary adenomas and in a mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cell line. Here we report that Magmas is highly expressed in two out of four rat pituitary adenoma cell lines and its expression levels inversely correlate to the extent of cellular response to staurosporine in terms of apoptosis activation and cell viability. Magmas over-expression in rat GH/PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma GH4C1 cells leads to an increase in cell viability and to a reduction in staurosporine-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation, in parallel with the increase in Magmas protein expression. These results indicate that Magmas plays a pivotal role in response to pro-apoptotic stimuli and confirm and extend the finding that Magmas protects pituitary cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis, suggesting its possible involvement in pituitary adenoma development.
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