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A High-Fidelity Virtual Environment for the Study of Paranoia
Matthew R. Broome,Eva Zányi,Thomas Hamborg,Elmedin Selmanovic,Silvester Czanner,Max Birchwood,Alan Chalmers,Swaran P. Singh
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/538185
Abstract: Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR) environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants ( ) entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists. 1. Introduction Psychosis, and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, is characterized by the presence of hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). It has become clear in recent years that the marked heterogeneity in the rates of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders across population groups [1] can be partly explained by urban birth and upbringing, migration, ethnicity, and what Cantor-Graae and Selten have termed “social defeat” [2, 3]. A particularly important recent body of research is the MRC AESOP study that demonstrated a twentyfold rate increase in the incidence of psychosis in London, compared with Nottingham and Bristol, and the very highest rates being within the Black and ethnic minority groups [4–8]. These epidemiological findings have strengthened continuum models of psychosis [9], which state that psychotic-like experiences are distributed in a normal nonclinical population and might be dependent upon many of the same variables as causally responsible for cases of the disorder [10]. Trying to connect psychological, biological, and social models of psychosis, and relating these to psychotic experiences and urbanicity in the general population, has become increasingly
Kembalikan Superioritas Jagung
Silvester Ndaparoka
The Interdisciplinary Journal of NTT Development Studies , 2009,
Silvester ?gur,Marko ?epon
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2000,
Abstract: Carcass from 260 Simmental and 159 Brown bulls were dissected first to different cuts (chuck, shoulder, front shank, rib roast, back, loin, tenderloin, brisket, rib, flank, leg and hind shank) and then to lean, fat, tendon and bone. The comparison between two breeds was made at 12.5 % carcass fat. Simmental breed had statistically significantly higher share of leg and brisket with rib and lower share of chuck, front and hind shank, rib roast, tenderloin and flank, with higher lean and lower bone percentage, but the differences were relatively small compared to Brown breed.
Slavko ?epin,Silvester ?gur
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2000,
Abstract: The majority of consumers refuse meat with higher levels of fat, because of possible association between high levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and heart disease. The meat production tries to fit consumers preferences with lowering fat content of meat. Such meat should also contain less cholesterol. In the following contribution the possibilities for reducing fat and cholesterol content and altering fatty acid composition of meat are discussed. In meat animals the estimated heritability for fat content is relatively high (between 0.3 and 0.6). This means that selection represents a powerful tool for fat reduction. Even better possibility for reducing fat and altering fatty acid composition is adequate nutrition. The decrease of animal age and weight at slaughter can also reduce carcass fat content. Also the use of transgenic animals and different growth stimulators represents a wide range of possibilities to reduce fat content in farm animals.
Silvester ?gur,Marko ?epon
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2007,
Abstract: Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed) were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls) at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %). Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05) subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut /total fat in the cut) in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05) in shoulder than Brown bulls.
Fattening and slaughter traits of four rabbit genotypes
Ajda Kermauner,Silvester Zgur
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.3s.36
Abstract: Growth rate of 4 genotypes, two lines of Slovene SIKA meat rabbit (maternal line A and sire line C, both 50 rabbits), hybrid AxC (50 rabbits) and crossbred AxCal (A and Californian, 38 rabbits) was recorded from weaning (35 days of age) to slaughter (93 days). Growth performance and slaughter traits of AxC were different from line A (live weight at 91st day: A 2720, C 3158, AxC 3043 g (P£0.05), heterosis effect (H) +3.38%; carcass weight: A 1490, C 1787, AxC 1716 g (P£0.05), H +5.65%; dressing percentage: A 54.1, C 55.6, AxC 55.5% (P£0.05); H +1.26%. Weaning weight of AxCal was significantly lower than of AxC (AxCal 843, AxC 1050 g, P£0.05), but at the end of the experiment the weight of AxCal rabbits was very close to AxC (AxCal 2958, AxC 3043 g, P>0.05). Other growth and slaughter traits did not differ between AxC and AxCal group.
Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes
Silvester Zgur,Ajda Kermauner
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.3s.172
Abstract: Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed) were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.
Simulation of controlled queuing systems and its application to optimal resource management in multiservice cellular networks
Choi, Jinsung;Silvester, J. A.;
Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-65001999000100005
Abstract: we consider a controlled queuing model and derive the corresponding markov decision process for simple g/m/1 call admission controller. as an application of the controlled queuing model, we look into an optimal resource management problem arising in the context of multiservice cellular network with reuse partitioning. in particular, we consider a channel borrowing scheme between zones in two-zone reuse partitioning in a two-class cellular network and investigated the performance of various channel borrowing policies via simulation. we also introduce the simulator developed for controlled queuing systems. most importantly, we demonstrate that markov decision processes are well suited to this kind of optimization problem.
Ne?ika Petri?,Marko ?epon,Silvester ?gur
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2007,
Abstract: Carcass traits (carcass weight, conformation and fatness note and payment class) were collected in the commercial slaughterhouses with automatic data collection for the last ten years. On the average more than 80 % of all graded bovine animals in Slovenia were taken into the study. The average carcass weight of calvesincreased by 20 kg, but was with 79 kg still very low. The carcass weight of young bulls, heifers and cows varied among different years, but no trend could be noticed, whereas carcass weight of old bulls decreased markedly (more than 50 kg). The carcass conformation decreased in all categories, in calves, young bulls and heifers by two thirds and in old bulls and cows by more than 0.9 of conformation class. The carcass fatness decreased in all categories too. The most pronounced decrease was noticed in the category of old bulls (0.6 class) and the least in young bulls (0.2 class). Most of the above mentioned changes occurred after the year 2002 in the category of cows and after the year 2001 in all other categories. The main reasons for changes in conformation and fatness were probably the changes in cattle breed structure in Slovenia.
Carcass Quality of Slaughtered Cika and Brown Cattle in Slovenia
Mojca Sim?i?,Marko ?epon,Silvester ?gur
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to compare carcass traits between Cika and Brown cattle of all slaughter categories. The data used were collected in Slovenian slaughterhouses from 2007 to 2010. After the slaughter carcass weight was recorded and carcass conformation and fatness were scored according to the EUROP system. Net daily gain was calculated. Data were analysed by GLM procedure of statistical package SAS/ STAT considering breed, month of the slaughter and year of the slaughter nested within the breed as fixed effects. Cika bulls (under 24 months old) were two months younger at slaughter (20.2 months) and achieved lower carcass weight (266.7 kg) compared to Brown bulls (22.4 months, 330.0 kg). Also in all other categories except in calves under eight months old, Brown cattle had higher carcass weight. Bulls under 24 months old, steers, cows and calves over eight to 12 months old of Brown cattle were older at slaughter compared to Cika breed. Net daily gain was also higher in all slaughtered categories of Brown cattle. Even if the slaughtered Brown cattle had heavier carcass weight compared to Cika cattle there was almost no significant difference in carcass conformation. Carcasses of Cika bulls under 24 months old had conformation 6.4 while Brown bulls 6.3. Likewise carcasses of Cika calves over eight to 12 months had higher conformation score (5.7) than Brown (4.8) calves. Fatness was higher in Brown bulls, steers and heifers compared to Cika cattle, while Cika cows had higher fatness than Brown cows.
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