Abstract:
In this paper, a single product, multi-period, aggregate production planning problem is formulated as a linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal control model with chance constraints on state and control variables. Such formulation is based on a classical production planning model developed in 1960 by Holt, Modigliani, Muth and Simon, and known, since then, as the HMMS model [1]. The proposed LQG model extends the HMMS model, taking into account both chance-constraints on the decision variables and data generating process, based on ARMA model, to represent the fluctuation of demand. Using the certainty-equivalence principle, the constrained LQG model can be transformed into an equivalent, but deterministic model, which is called here as Mean Value Problem (MVP). This problem preserves the main properties of the original model such as convexity and some statistical moments. Besides, it is easier to be implemented and solved numerically than its stochastic version. In addition, two very simple suboptimal procedures from stochastic control theory are briefly discussed. Finally, an illustrative example is introduced to show how the extended HMMS model can be used to develop plans and to generate production scenarios.

Abstract:
We present in this paper an alternative of modeling physical systems through a non-Classical logic namely the Paraconsistent Logic (PL) whose main feature is the revocation of the principle of non-contradiction. The Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v) is a type of PL and has in its theoretical structure the main feature of dealing with contradictions offering flexibility in drawing conclusions. Several works about applications of PAL2v have shown that such logic is able to provide us with an adequate treatment to uncertainties. Based on the foundations of the PAL2v we presented the ParaQuantum logic (PQL) with the goal of performing analysis of signals from information sources which model physical systems. The formalization of the concepts of the logics PQL, that it is represented in a Lattice, requires the considering of Paraquantum logical states ψ which are propagated through variations of the evidence Degrees µ and λ which come out from measurements performed in Observable Variables in the physical world. When we analyze the lattice of the PQL, we obtain equations which quantify values of physical quantities from where we obtain the effects of propagation of the Paraquantum logical states ψ. In this paper, we introduce the Paraquantum Factor of quantization hψ whose value is associated with a special logical state on the lattice which is identified with the Planck constant h. We conclude through these studies that the Paraquantum Logical Model based on the ParaQuantum logics PQL can link the several fields of the physical sciences by means of quantization of values. It is an innovative approach of formulating natural phenomena.

Abstract:
In this work we presented a study of the obtaining of the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom using equations that are originated from the foundations of the Paraquantum Logic (PQL). Based on a class of logics called Paraconsistent Logics with annotation of two values (PAL2v), PQL performs a logical treatment on signals obtained by measurements on physical quantities which are considered Observable Variables in the physical world. In the process of application of the PQL the obtained values are transformed in Evidence Degrees and represented on a Lattice of four Vertices where special equations transform these degrees into Paraquantum logical states ψ which propagate. This allows creating Paraquantum logical models of physical systems of the real world. Using the paraquantum equations, we investigated the hydrogen atom spectrum and his main series known. We performed a numerical comparative study that applies the Paraquantum Logical Model to calculate the wavelengths values. The values of wavelengths obtained by the Paraquantum Equations are compared by the results found by the Rydberg formula and are verified that the series of the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom can be identified with the representative Lattices of the Paraquantum Logic. Through the application of the Paraquantum equations it was found a numeric value relates the layers of Paraquantum model of the Hydrogen atom. This value represents a constant that relates the Lattices that compose the Paraquantum universe, and it was denominated Paraquantum Structure Constant, whose symbol is αψ. The obtained results of the comparison demonstrate that the Paraquantum Logic comes with good possibilities of being the ideal logic to model our physical reality.

Abstract:
In this paper we use a non-classical logic called ParaQuantum Logic (PQL) which is based on the foundations of the Paraconsistent Annotated logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v). The formalizations of the PQL concepts, which is represented by a lattice with four vertices, leads us to consider Paraquantum logical states ψ which are propagated by means of variations of the evidence Degrees extracted from measurements performed on the Observable Variables of the physical world. In this work we introduce the Paraquantum Gamma Factor γ_{Pψ} which is an expansion factor on the PQL lattice that act in the physical world and is correlated with the Paraquantum Factor of quantization h_{ψ} whose value is associated with a special logical state on the lattice which is identified with the Planck constant h. Our studies show that the behavior of the Paraquantum Gamma Factor γ_{Pψ}, at the time of reading the evidence Degrees through measurements of the Observable Variables in the physical world, is identical to that one of the Lorentz Factor γ used in the relativity theory. In the final part of this paper we present results about studies of expansion and contraction of the Paraquantum Logical Model which correlate the factors γ_{Pψ}, and γ. By applying these correlation factors, the lattice of the PQL suitable for the universe understudy can be contracted or expanded, allowing the quantization model to cover the several study fields of physics.

Abstract:
Paraquantum Logics (PQL) has its origins in the fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Annotated Logics (PAL) whose main feature is to be capable of treating contradictory information. Based on a class of logics called Paraconsistent Logics with annotations of two values (PAL2v), PQL performs a logical treatment on signals obtained by measurements on physical quantities which are considered Observable Variables in the physical world. In the process of application of the PQL the obtained values are transformed in Evidence Degrees and represented on a Lattice of four Ver- tices where special equations transform these degrees into Paraquantum logical states ψ which propagate. The propagation of Paraquantum logical states provides us with results which can be interpreted and modeled through phenomena studied in physics. Using the paraquantum equations, we investigate the effects of balancing of Energies and the quantization and transience properties of the Paraquantum Logical Model in real Physical Systems. As a demonstration of the usage of the paraquantum equations we perform a numerical comparative study that applies the PQL to the Bohr’s model to find the energy levels of the Hydrogen atom. It is verified that the values of energy in each level of the Paraquantum logical model of the Hydrogen atom are close to the values found by the conventional way. The results through the Paraquantum Logic allow considering other important properties of the atom, as the forecast of number of electrons in each layer.

Abstract:
The method presented in this work is based on the fundamental concepts of Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of 2 values (PAL2v). The PAL2v is a non-classic Logics which admits contradiction and in this paper we perform a study using mathematical interpretation in its representative lattice. This studies result in algorithms and equations give an effective treatment on signals of information that represent situations found in uncertainty knowledge database. From the obtained equations, algorithms are elaborated to be utilized in computation models of the uncertainty treatment Systems. We presented some results that were obtained of analyses done with one of the algorithms that compose the paraconsistent analyzing system of logical signals with the PAL2v Logic. The paraconsistent reasoning system built according to the PAL2v methodology notions reveals itself to be more efficient than the traditional ones, because it gets to offer an appropriate treatment to contradictory information.

Abstract:
Paraquantum Logic (P _{ QL }) has its origins in the fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Annotated Logic (PAL) whose main feature is to be capable of treating contradictory information. In this work we presented a study of application of the P _{ QL } in resolution of phenomena of physical systems that involves the interactions between physical bodies or particles. Initially is considered that each particle or physical body that is in the physical world has a representative Lattice in the Paraquantum world. From this consideration is made a study of the phenomena of Paraquantum Entanglement modeling the interaction between particles based in fundamental concepts of the Paraquantum Logic. The mathematical relationships of representative Lattices of the Paraquantum Logic originate models with values that are identified with some physical constants. In this work these paraquantum values are identified with the Universal constant of Gravity, proposed by Newton, and the constant K, that relates the Interaction Force in charged particles in the Coulomb’s Law. The results showed that the Paraquantum Logical Model elaborated starting from the fundamental concepts of the Paraquantum Logic (P _{ QL }) is adequate to support theories based in a Paraquantum Universe built by an infinite amount of Lattices and forming a Paraquantum net of infinite dimensions.

Abstract:
From fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v), whose main feature is to be capable of treating contradictory information, was created the Paraquantum Logic (P_{QL}). The studies of the P_{QL} are based on propagation of Paraquantum logical states ψ in a representative Lattice of four vertices. Based in interpretations that consider resulting information of measurements in physical systems, are found two Paraquantum factors: the Paraquantum Gamma Factor γ_{PΨ}, that has his action in the measurements of Observable Variables in the Physical world and the Paraquantum Factor of quantization hΨ, which has his action in the Paraquantum World represented by the P_{QL} Lattice. Correlation between γ_{PΨ} and hΨ produces paraquantum equations for computation of the physical quantities in real physical systems. In this work we present a study of application of the P_{QL} in resolution of phenomena of physical systems that involve concepts of the Relativity Theory. Initially the time t is considered like an Observable Variable and the paraquantum analysis is done with the same conditions assumed in the relativity theory for the study of the time dilatation. After the time considerations, paraquantum equations are involved with the space-time and velocity creating conditions for a relativistic/paraquantum analysis. In the part II of this work a new approaches of the relativistic phenomena in the Paraquantum Logical Model will show the correlation of these effects with the Newtonian universe and with quantum mechanics.

Abstract:
The studies of the P_{QL} are based on propagation of Paraquantum logical states ψ in a representative Lattice of four vertices. Based in interpretations that consider resulting information of measurements in physical systems are found paraquantum equations for computation of the physical quantities in real physical systems. In the first part of this work we presented a study of Relativity theory which involved the time and the space with their characteristics as degrees of evidence applied in Paraquantum Logical Model. Now, in this second Part we present a study of application of the P_{QL} in resolution of phenomena of physical systems that involve concepts of the Relativity Theory and the correlation of these effects with the Newtonian Universe and Quantum Mechanics. Considering physical fundamental quantities varying periodically in amplitude, we introduce the paraquantum equations which consider frequency in the analysis. From of these mathematical relationships obtained in the P_{QL} Lattice some main physical constants related to the studies of De Broglie appeared. With the equations of Energy obtained through the analyses is demonstrated that the Paraquantum Logic is capable to correlate values and to unify the several study areas of the Physical Science.

In this paper, we present an equationing method based on non-classical logics applied to resolution of problems which involves phenomena of physical science. A non-classical logic denominated of the ParaquantumLogic (PQL), which is based on the fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Annotated logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v), is used. The formalizations of the PQL concepts, which are represented by a lattice with four vertices, lead us to consider Paraquantum logical states ψ which are propagated by means of variations of the evidence Degrees extracted from measurements performed on the Observable Variables of the physical world. The studies on the lattice of PQL give us equations that quantify values of physical largenesses from where we obtain the effects of the propagation of the Paraquantum logical states ψ. The PQL lattice with such features can be extensively studied and we obtain a Paraquantum Logical Model with the capacity of contraction or expansion which can represent any physical universe. In this paper the Paraquantum Logical Model is applied to the Newton Laws where we obtain equations and verify the action of an expansion factor the PQL lattice called Paraquantum Gamma Factor γ_{Pψ} and its correlation with another important factor called Paraquantum Factor of quantization