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Khat (Catha edulis): The herb with officio-legal, socio-cultural and economic uncertainty
Sikiru Lamina
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i3/4.155
Abstract: Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant of uncertain and highly controversial status grown in the countries around the Red Sea and on the eastern coast of Africa. The chewing of khat leaves has a deep-rooted religious and socio-cultural tradition. Khat is considered a cash crop and its cultivation is a source of economic value to the societies and nations involved. There have, however, been reports of negative economic effects on the individuals engaging in the habit of khat chewing. The increasing use of khat worldwide, along with the negative international attention that this has garnered, has led to the present status of uncertainty of the once indigenous practice of khat chewing. Scientists, mostly western Europeans, have tended to focus on problems related to khat with little attention to the positive role of khat chewing in society and the world at large. In addition, no report has directly associated khat with any organised crime, violence or antisocial activity, particularly in countries where khat is legalised. This paper reviewed the various areas of uncertainty and controversy relating to khat. Based on the findings of the review, further qualitative and quantitative research is required and a positive international approach to khat use at economic, religious and socio-cultural levels is advocated.
Effects Of Two Levels Of Caffeine Doses On Endurance Performance Of Normal Young Black African Subjects
Sikiru Lamina,Danladi Ibrahim Musa
Doping Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two levels of caffeine doses (5 &10 mg/kg) on endurance exercise performance of normal young male African adults.Method: Twenty normal young male adults volunteers, participated. A repeated measures three randomized crossover (counter balanced) double blind design was used in data collection. Subjects engaged in 20 meter shuttle run test (20 MST) one hour Post caffeine(5, & 10 mg/kg) and placebo doses ingestion.Exercise Performance indices (VO2 max, run time & number of exercise laps) were recorded. Result: Repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the level of significant difference between caffeine doses and placebo dose in VO2 max, run time and number of exercise laps. The result showed no significant effect of the two (5 & 10mg/kg) doses of caffeine over placebo dose in all exercise performance indices investigated at p<0.05.Conclusion: It was concluded that caffeine doses up to 10 mg/kg seems not have any ergogenic effect on max aerobic power of normal young black African male Adults.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a placebo-control randomized trial
Lamina, Sikiru;Shmaila, Hanif;Muhammed, Samani A.;
International braz j urol , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382008000600005
Abstract: objective: the aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens) in the symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis pain/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. design: a pretest, posttest randomized double blind design was used in data collection. participant: twenty-four patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis- category iiia and iiib of the national institute of health chronic pain (nih-cp) were referred for physiotherapy from the urology department. intervention: pre treatment pain level was assessed using the nih-cp (pain domain) index. the tens group received tens treatment, 5 times per week for a period of 4 weeks (mean treatment frequency, intensity, pulse width and duration of 60hz, 100μs, 25ma and 20 minutes respectively). the analgesic group received no tens treatment but continued analgesics; the control group received no tens and analgesic but placebo. all subjects were placed on antibiotics throughout the treatment period. outcome measures: post-treatment pain level was also assessed using nih-cp pain index. result: findings of the study revealed significant effect of tens on chronic prostatitis pain at p < 0.05. conclusion: tens is an effective means of non-invasive symptomatic management of chronic prostatitis pain.
Blood glucose response to aerobic exercise training programme among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu South-East, Nigeria  [PDF]
Charles Ikechukwu Ezema, Amarachi Akuegbu Onwunali, Sikiru Lamina, Uche Anthonia Ezugwu, Augustine Amaeze Amaeze, Maduabuchukwu Joseph Nwankwo, Florence Ngozi Amaeze
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511242
Abstract: The following article has been retracted due to the conflicts between the authors. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter, and HEALTH treats all unethical behavior seriously. This paper published in Vol.5 No.11, 1796-1802 (2013) has been removed from this site. Title: Blood glucose response to aerobic exercise training programme among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu South-East, Nigeria Authors: Charles Ikechukwu Ezema, Amarachi Akuegbu Onwunali, Sikiru Lamina, Uche Anthonia Ezugwu, Augustine Amaeze Amaeze, Maduabuchukwu Joseph Nwankwo, Florence Ngozi Amaeze
Effects and correlates of continuous training programme on psychosocial status and white blood cell count in men with essential hypertension: A randomized controlled trial  [PDF]
Sikiru Lamina, Chuba Goddy Okoye, Charles Ikechukwu Ezema, Uche A. Ezugwu, Augustine A. Amaeze, Maduabuchukwu Joseph Nwankwo
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.59191

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect and relationship of continuous training programme on WBCc and psychosocial status of black African (Nigerian) subjects with hypertension. Methods: Nigerian subjects with diagnosis of hypertension attending the hypertensive clinic of Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, Nigeria form the population for the study. 217 subjects with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure [SBP] between 140-180 & diastolic blood pressure [DBP] between 90-109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and randomly grouped into continuous (112) & control groups (105). The continuous group involved in an 8 weeks continuous training (60%-79% HR max) of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, 3 times per week, while the controls group remain sedentary. SBP, DBP, WBCc, VO2max and psychosocial status were assessed. Student t test and Pearson correlation test were used in data analysis. Results: The study revealed a significant beneficial effect of continuous training programmes on VO2max, SBP, DBP, WBCc and psychosocial status (p < 0.05). Psychosocial status and WBCc were positively and negatively correlated respectively with VO2max at p < 0.01. Conclusions: This study supports the recommendations of moderate intensity (continuous) training program as an adjunct multi-therapy in blood pressure, inflammatory and psychosocial stress management in hypertension.

Exercise and menstrual function: A review study  [PDF]
Sikiru Lamina, Charles Ikechukwu Ezema, Uche A. Ezugwu, Augustine A. Amaeze, Maduabuchukwu Joseph Nwankwo, Amaeze Florence Ngozi
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512272

At present there is no conclusive evidence that participation in exercise affects menstruation and is equivocal and unclear whether menstrualtion affects athletic performance. An attempt has therefore been made in this paper to discuss the effects of menstruation on exercise performance and vice versa. The paper reviewed that women experiencing pre-menstrual syndrome will not likely perform well and that menstrual irregularity is much higher in athletes than sedentary women. The paper also reviewed that athletes reach menarche later than sedentary sisters. The review concluded that competing women experiencing premenstrual syndrome might get control over their menstruation through medically recommended low dose oral contraceptive. The paper recommended that athletes experiencing menstrual irregularities and disturbances should seek medical consultation and management before further training.

A survey of awareness and knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in pregnant women attending Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria  [PDF]
Mustafa Adelaja Lamina
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.22019
Abstract: Objective: To determine the knowledge and awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) among women attending the antenatal clinic. Methods and Subjects: This was primarily a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at the antenatal clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria from July 1st, 2010 to October 31st, 2010. Results: The age range of the respondents was 18 - 41 years, (mean 29 ± 5 years). One hundred and forty-nine (92.5%) were married. All the respondents interviewed were aware of HIV/AIDS and 93 (57.8%) had been aware of the disease for ≥5 years. The main sources of information were television 93 (57.8%), radio 77 (47.8%), health workers 53 (32.9%), friends, relatives and neighbors 41 (25.5%) and posters 34 (21.1%). Majority of the respondents identified sexual intercourse as a route of transmission of HIV. Sharing of sharp objects and blood transfusion were identified as routes of transmission by 99 (61.5%) and 82 (50.9%) respectively. One hundred and sixteen (72%) of the respondents knew an apparently healthy person could be living with HIV. Majority of the respondents 125 (77.6%) were aware that HIV can coexist with pregnancy and 120 (74.5%) were aware of MTCT of HIV. Vaginal delivery and breastfeeding were identified as routes of HIV transmission by 44 (27.3%) and 53 (32.9%) of respondents respectively. Delivery by caesarean section was identified as a method of prevention of MTCT by 25 (15.5%) respondents while as many as 48 (29.8%) respondents did not know any method of prevention of MTCT of HIV. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a low level of awareness of methods of prevention of MTCT of HIV among pregnant women booking for antenatal care in our center. Thus, there is the need for adequate counseling about HIV/AIDS and specific aspects of prevention of mother-to-child transmission in our antenatal clinics.
The effect of urine pregnancy testing on timing of accessing antenatal care and abortion services in Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Mustafa Adelaja Lamina
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.36089

Objective: Effective confirmation of pregnancy is a basic component of reproductive health services. It is a determinant for accessing antenatal care (ANC) if the pregnancy is wanted and abortion services if the pregnancy is unwanted. This study examined the effect of urine pregnancy testing in the timing of presentation for pregnancy care. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 women presenting for antenatal care and 300 women presenting for abortion at private sector clinics in Western Nigeria. Results: The median age at first presentation was 20 weeks for ANC clients and 8 weeks for abortion clients. Obtaining urine pregnancy test of one’s accord was associated with a decrease in the gestational age at presentation of 3.7 weeks and 1.5 weeks for antenatal and abortion clients, respectively, independent of all other factors. Conclusion: Bearing in mind that the clinical benefit and public health impact of early presentation for antenatal and abortion services are unequivocal, strategies aimed at decreasing gestational age at presentation for pregnancy care should be given priority. “Fast-track” urine pregnancy testing services should be promoted in the private and public clinics in Nigeria.

Health care providers’ attitudes towards termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study in Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Mustafa Adelaja Lamina
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.34074

Background: Despite restrictive abortion law in Nigeria, women still seek abortion services. Restrictive policies on abortion make it difficult for safe and legal abortion to be obtained. Hence, abortion is provided on clandestine basis in some private health facilities, and where the cost of such service is prohibitory, women resort to unsafe methods, including visiting quacks and self medication, resulting in severe complications including death. In Nigeria, little is known about the personal and professional attitudes of individuals who are currently providing abortion services. Exploring the factors which determine health care providers’ involvement in or disengagement from abortion services may facilitate improvement in the planning and provision of future services. Methods: Data were collected using qualitative research methods. Thirty-six in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted between January 2010 and July 2010 with health care providers who were involved in a range of abortion services provision in theWestern Nigeria. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Complex patterns of service delivery were prevalent throughout many of the health care facilities. Fragmented levels of service provision operated in order to accommodate health care providers’ willingness to be involved in different aspects of abortion provision. Closely linked with this was the urgent need expressed by many providers for liberalization of abortion laws inNigeriain order to create a supportive environment for both clients and providers. Almost all providers were concerned about the numerous difficulties women faced in seeking an abortion and their general quality of care. An overriding concern was poor pre and post abortion counselling including contraceptive counselling and provision. Conclusion: This is the first known qualitative study undertaken in Nigeria exploring providers’ attitudes towards abortion and it adds to the body of information addressing the barriers to safe abortion services. In order to provide an enabling environment and sustain a pool of abortion service providers, a drastic change in Nigerian abortion laws is mandatory, after which policies that both attract prospective abortion service providers and retain existing ones can be developed.

A Ten-Year Review of Primary Postpartum Haemrrhage at a University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria: A Case-Control Study  [PDF]
Mustafa Adelaja Lamina, Monday Ikhile
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.53019

Objective: To determine the incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage, identify risk/aetiological factors contributing to primary postpartum haemorrhage and review the different therapeutic approaches in the management of primary postpartum haemorrhage. Method: A retrospective case-control study of all patients with primary postpartum haemorrhage from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010 at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. Result: In the period under review, 272 cases of primary postpartum haemorrhage were documented while there were a total of 5929 deliveries, giving an incidence of 1 in 26 (25.6%). The average blood loss in the cases reviewed was 1550 mls whilst in the controls, the average blood loss was 200 mls. There was statistical significant difference between the grandmultiparous cases and grandmultiparous controls (58.4% versus 16.5%, OR = 6.74, p < 0.05), suggesting that grandmultiparity may be an implicated factor in primary postpartum haemorrhage. In the unbooked cases, retained placenta was the major cause of primary postpartum haemorrhage constituting 109 (51.7%), whereas in booked cases, uterine atony contributed 70.5% to primary postpartum haemorrhage. Four maternal deaths were recorded giving a case fatality rate of 1.5%; all were unbooked. Conclusion: Postpartum haemorrhage ranks high in the list of causes of maternal death and the case fatality rate can be very high. Prevention is the key to reducing the incidence of PPH and its sequale, with preventive measures based upon the identification of risk factors, surveillance of women at risk and seemingly not at risk and avoidance of procedure during delivery which could potentially result in complications.

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