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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14321 matches for " Sijing Shen "
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Dark Matter Heating and Early Core Formation in Dwarf Galaxies
Piero Madau,Sijing Shen,Fabio Governato
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/789/1/L17
Abstract: We present more results from a fully cosmological LCDM simulation of a group of isolated dwarf galaxies that has been shown to reproduce the observed stellar mass and cold gas content, resolved star formation histories, and metallicities of dwarfs in the Local Volume. Here we investigate the energetics and timetable of the cusp-core transformation. As suggested by previous work, supernova-driven gas outflows remove dark matter (DM) cusps and create kpc-size cores in all systems having a stellar mass above 1e6 Msun. The "DM core mass removal efficiency" -- dark mass ejected per unit stellar mass -- ranges today from a few to a dozen, and increases with decreasing host mass. Because dwarfs form the bulk of their stars prior to redshift 1 and the amount of work required for DM heating and core formation scales approximately as Mvir^{5/3}, the unbinding of the DM cusp starts early and the formation of cored profiles is not as energetically onerous as previously claimed. DM particles in the cusp typically migrate to 2-3 core radii after absorbing a few percent of the energy released by supernovae. The present-day slopes of the inner dark matter mass profiles, Gamma=d log M/dlog R=2.5-3, of the simulated "Bashful" and "Doc" dwarfs are similar to those measured in the luminous Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals. None of the simulated galaxies has a circular velocity profile exceeding 20 km/s in the inner 1 kpc, implying that supernova feedback is key to solve the "too-big-to-fail" problem for Milky Way subhalos.
The Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium with Adiabatic Feedback I: Metal Cooling and Metal Diffusion
Sijing Shen,James Wadsley,Gregory Stinson
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17047.x
Abstract: A study of the IGM metal enrichment using a series of SPH simulations is presented, employing metal cooling and turbulent diffusion of metals and thermal energy. An adiabatic feedback mechanism was adopted where gas cooling was prevented to generate galactic winds without explicit wind particles. The simulations produced a cosmic star formation history (SFH) that is broadly consistent with observations until z $\sim$ 0.5, and a steady evolution of the universal neutral hydrogen fraction ($\Omega_{\rm H I}$). At z=0, about 40% of the baryons are in the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), but most metals (80%-90%) are locked in stars. At higher z the proportion of metals in the IGM is higher due to more efficient loss from galaxies. The IGM metals primarily reside in the WHIM throughout cosmic history. The metallicity evolution of the gas inside galaxies is broadly consistent with observations, but the diffuse IGM is under enriched at z $\sim$ 2.5. Galactic winds most efficiently enrich the IGM for halos in the intermediate mass range $10^{10}$M$_{\sun}$ - $10^{11}$ M$_{\sun}$. At the low mass end gas is prevented from accreting onto halos and has very low metallicities. At the high mass end, the fraction of halo baryons escaped as winds declines along with the decline of stellar mass fraction of the galaxies. This is likely because of the decrease in star formation activity and in wind escape efficiency. Metals enhance cooling which allows WHIM gas to cool onto galaxies and increases star formation. Metal diffusion allows winds to mix prior to escape, decreasing the IGM metal content in favour of gas within galactic halos and star forming gas. Diffusion significantly increases the amount of gas with low metallicities and changes the density-metallicity relation.
A lower fragmentation mass scale in high redshift galaxies and its implications on giant clumps: a systematic numerical study
Valentina Tamburello,Lucio Mayer,Sijing Shen,James Wadsley
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1695
Abstract: We study the effect of sub-grid physics, galaxy mass, structural parameters and resolution on the fragmentation of gas-rich galaxy discs into massive star forming clumps. The initial conditions are set up with the aid of the ARGO cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. Blast-wave feedback does not suppress fragmentation, but reduces both the number of clumps and the duration of the unstable phase. Once formed, bound clumps cannot be destroyed by our feedback model. Widespread fragmentation is promoted by high gas fractions and low halo concentrations. Yet giant clumps $M > 10^8 M_{\odot}$ lasting several hundred Myr are rare and mainly produced by clump-clump mergers. They occur in massive discs with maximum rotational velocities $V_{max} > 250$ km/s at $z \sim 2$, at the high mass end of the observed galaxy population at those redshifts. The typical gaseous and stellar masses of clumps in all runs are in the range $\sim 10^7-10^8 M_{\odot}$ for galaxies with disc mass in the range $10^{10}-8\times 10^{10} M_{\odot}$. Clumps sizes are usually in the range $100-400$ pc, in agreement with recent clump observations in lensed high-z galaxies. \\ We argue that many of the giant clumps identified in observations are not due to in-situ fragmetation, or are the result of blending of smaller structures owing to insufficient resolution. Using an analytical model describing local collapse inside spiral arms, we can predict the characteristic gaseous masses of clumps at the onset of fragmentation ($\sim 3-5 \times 10^7 M_{\odot}$) quite accurately, while the conventional Toomre mass overestimates them. Due to their moderate masses, clumps which migrate to the centre have marginal effect on bulge growth.
A Numerical Study of Brown Dwarf Formation via Encounters of Protostellar Disks
Sijing Shen,James Wadsley,Tristen Hayfield,Nicholas Ellens
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15691.x
Abstract: The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) due to the fragmentation of proto-stellar disks undergoing pairwise encounters was investigated. High resolution allowed the use of realistic initial disk models where both the vertical structure and the local Jeans mass were resolved. The results show that objects with masses ranging from giant planets to low mass stars can form during such encounters from initially stable disks. The parameter space of initial spin-orbit orientations and the azimuthal angles for each disk was explored. An upper limit on the initial Toomre Q value of ~2 was found for fragmentation to occur. Depending on the initial configuration, shocks, tidal-tail structures and mass inflows were responsible for the condensation of disk gas. Retrograde disks were generally more likely to fragment. When the interaction timescale was significantly shorter than the disks' dynamical timescales, the proto-stellar disks tended to be truncated without forming objects. The newly-formed objects had masses ranging from 0.9 to 127 Jupiter masses, with the majority in the BD regime. They often resided in star-BD multiples and in some cases also formed hierarchical orbiting systems. Most of them had large angular momenta and highly flattened, disk-like shapes. The objects had radii ranging from 0.1 to 10 AU. The disk gas was assumed to be locally isothermal, appropriate for the short cooling times in extended proto-stellar disks, but not for condensed objects. An additional case with explicit cooling that reduced to zero for optically thick gas was simulated to test the extremes of cooling effectiveness and it was still possible to form objects in this case. Detailed radiative transfer is expected to lengthen the internal evolution timescale for these objects, but not to alter our basic results.
The Baryon Cycle of Dwarf Galaxies: Dark, Bursty, Gas-Rich Polluters
Sijing Shen,Piero Madau,Charlie Conroy,Fabio Governato,Lucio Mayer
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/792/2/99
Abstract: We present results from a fully cosmological, very high-resolution, LCDM "zoom-in" simulation of a group of seven field dwarf galaxies with present-day virial masses in the range M_vir=4.4e8-3.6e10 Msun. The simulation includes a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals and thermal energy, and a uniform UV background that modifies the ionization and excitation state of the gas. The properties of the simulated dwarfs are strongly modulated by the depth of the gravitational potential well. All three halos with M_vir < 1e9 Msun are devoid of stars, as they never reach the density threshold for star formation of 100 atoms/cc. The other four, M_vir > 1e9 Msun dwarfs have blue colors, low star formation efficiencies, high cold gas to stellar mass ratios, and low stellar metallicities. Their bursty star formation histories are characterized by peak specific star formation rates in excess of 50-100 1/Gyr, far outside the realm of normal, more massive galaxies, and in agreement with observations of extreme emission-line starbursting dwarfs by the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. Metal-enriched galactic outflows produce sub-solar effective yields and pollute with heavy elements a Mpc-size region of the intergalactic medium, but are not sufficient to completely quench star formation activity and are not ubiquitous in our dwarfs. Within the limited size of the sample, our simulations appear to simultaneously reproduce the observed stellar mass and cold gas content, resolved star formation histories, stellar kinematics, and metallicities of field dwarfs in the Local Volume.
Consequences of cosmic microwave background-regulated star formation
Jeremy Bailin,Greg Stinson,Hugh Couchman,William E. Harris,James Wadsley,Sijing Shen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/715/1/194
Abstract: It has been hypothesized that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provides a temperature floor for collapsing protostars that can regulate the process of star formation and result in a top-heavy initial mass function at high metallicity and high redshift. We examine whether this hypothesis has any testable observational consequences. First we determine, using a set of hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations, that the CMB temperature floor would have influenced the majority of stars formed at redshifts between z=3 and 6, and probably even to higher redshift. Five signatures of CMB-regulated star formation are: (1) a higher supernova rate than currently predicted at high redshift; (2) a systematic discrepancy between direct and indirect measurements of the high redshift star formation rate; (3) a lack of surviving globular clusters that formed at high metallicity and high redshift; (4) a more rapid rise in the metallicity of cosmic gas than is predicted by current simulations; and (5) an enhancement in the abundances of alpha elements such as O and Mg at metallicities -2 < [Fe/H] < -0.5. Observations are not presently able to either confirm or rule out the presence of these signatures. However, if correct, the top-heavy IMF of high-redshift high-metallicity globular clusters could provide an explanation for the observed bimodality of their metallicity distribution.
The Dual Origin of Stellar Halos II: Chemical Abundances as Tracers of Formation History
Adi Zolotov,Beth Willman,Alyson Brooks,Fabio Governato,David W. Hogg,Sijing Shen,James Wadsley
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/721/1/738
Abstract: Fully cosmological, high resolution N-Body + SPH simulations are used to investigate the chemical abundance trends of stars in simulated stellar halos as a function of their origin. These simulations employ a physically motivated supernova feedback recipe, as well as metal enrichment, metal cooling and metal diffusion. As presented in an earlier paper, the simulated galaxies in this study are surrounded by stellar halos whose inner regions contain both stars accreted from satellite galaxies and stars formed in situ in the central regions of the main galaxies and later displaced by mergers into their inner halos. The abundance patterns ([Fe/H] and [O/Fe]) of halo stars located within 10 kpc of a solar-like observer are analyzed. We find that for galaxies which have not experienced a recent major merger, in situ stars at the high [Fe/H] end of the metallicity distribution function are more [alpha/Fe]-rich than accreted stars at similar [Fe/H]. This dichotomy in the [O/Fe] of halo stars at a given [Fe/H] results from the different potential wells within which in situ and accreted halo stars form. These results qualitatively match recent observations of local Milky Way halo stars. It may thus be possible for observers to uncover the relative contribution of different physical processes to the formation of stellar halos by observing such trends in the halo populations of the Milky Way, and other local L* galaxies.
Wandering Black Holes in Bright Disk Galaxy Halos
Jillian Bellovary,Fabio Governato,Tom Quinn,James Wadsley,Sijing Shen,Marta Volonteri
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/721/2/L148
Abstract: We perform SPH+N-body cosmological simulations of massive disk galaxies, including a formalism for black hole seed formation and growth, and find that satellite galaxies containing supermassive black hole seeds are often stripped as they merge with the primary galaxy. These events naturally create a population of "wandering" black holes that are the remnants of stripped satellite cores; galaxies like the Milky Way may host 5 -- 15 of these objects within their halos. The satellites that harbor black hole seeds are comparable to Local Group dwarf galaxies such as the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds; these galaxies are promising candidates to host nearby intermediate mass black holes. Provided that these wandering black holes retain a gaseous accretion disk from their host dwarf galaxy, they give a physical explanation for the origin and observed properties of some recently discovered off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray sources such as HLX-1.
The origin of metals in the circum-galactic medium of massive galaxies at z=3
Sijing Shen,Piero Madau,Anthony Aguirre,Javiera Guedes,Lucio Mayer,James Wadsley
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/50
Abstract: We present a detailed study of the metal-enriched circum-galactic medium of a massive galaxy at z=3 using "ErisMC", a new cosmological hydrodynamic "zoom-in" simulations of a disk galaxy with mass comparable to the Milky Way. The run adopts a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback that generates galactic outflows without explicit wind particles, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, and high temperature metal cooling. ErisMC's main progenitor at z=3 resembles a "Lyman break" galaxy of mass M_vir=2.4e11 M_sun, virial radius R_vir=48 kpc, and star formation rate 18 M_sun/yr, and its metal-enriched CGM extends to 200 (physical) kpc from its center. Approximately 41, 9, and 50 percent of all gas-phase metals at z=3 are locked in a hot (T> 3e5 K), warm (3e5 >T> 3e4 K), and cold (T< 3e4 K) medium, respectively. We identify three sources of heavy elements: 1) the main host, responsible for 60% of all the metals found within 3R_vir; 2) its satellite progenitors, responsible for 28% of all the metals within 3R_vir, and for only 5% of those beyond 3R_vir; and nearby dwarfs, which give origin to 12% of all the metals within 3R_vir and 95% of those beyond 3R_vir. Late (z<5) galactic "superwinds" account for only 9% of all the metals observed beyond 2R_vir, the bulk having been released at redshifts 5< z < 8 by early star formation and outflows. In the CGM, lower overdensities are typically enriched by `older', colder metals. Heavy elements are accreted onto Eris along filaments via low-metallicity cold inflows, and are ejected hot via galactic outflows at a few hundred km/s. The outflow mass-loading factor is of order unity for the main halo, but can exceed 10 for nearby dwarfs. We stress that our "zoom-in" simulation focuses on the CGM of a single massive system and cannot describe the enrichment history of the IGM as a whole. (abridged)
The circumgalactic medium of massive galaxies at z~3: a test for stellar feedback, galactic outflows, and cold streams
Sijing Shen,Piero Madau,Javiera Guedes,Lucio Mayer,J. Xavier Prochaska,James Wadsley
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/89
Abstract: We present new results on the kinematics, thermal and ionization state, and spatial distribution of metal-enriched gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of massive galaxies at redshift 3, using the "Eris" suite of cosmological "zoom-in" simulations. The reference run adopts a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback that produces galactic outflows, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, and a model for the diffusion of metals and thermal energy. Synthetic spectra through the multiphase CGM produce interstellar absorption line strengths of Lya, CII, CIV, SiII, and SiIV as a function of galactocentric impact parameter (scaled to the virial radius) that are in broad agreement with those observed at high-redshift by Steidel et al. (2010). Only about one third of all the gas within R_vir is outflowing. The fraction of sightlines within one virial radius that intercept optically thick material is 27%, in agreement with recent observations by Rudie et al. (2012). Such optically thick absorption is shown to trace inflowing "cold" streams that penetrate deep inside the virial radius. The streams, enriched to metallicities above 0.01 solar, give origin to strong (log N > 13) CII absorption with a covering factor of 22% within R_vir and 10% within 2 R_vir. Galactic outflows do not cause any substantial suppression of the cold accretion mode. The central galaxy is surrounded by a large OVI halo, with a typical column density log N>14 and a near unity covering factor maintained all the way out to 150 kpc. This matches the trends recently observed in star-forming galaxies at low redshift by Tumlinson et al. (2011). Our zoom-in simulations of this single system appear to reproduce quantitatively the complex baryonic processes that determine the exchange of matter, energy, and metals between galaxies and their surroundings. (Abridged)
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