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Conversion of L-Tryptophan into Melatonin Is the Possible Action Pathway Involved in the Effect of L-Tryptophan on Antidepressant-Related Behavior in Female Rats: Analysis of the Influence of Treatment Duration  [PDF]
Sihame Ouakki, Fatima Zahra El Mrabet, Aboubaker El Hessni, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Paul Pévet, Ali Ouichou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.34036
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of melatonin (MEL) and L-tryptophan (L-TRP) on depression-like behavior in female rats submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) after 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks of treatment. This will allow exploring the different mechanisms of L-TRP actions particularly that due to its conversion into MEL. For this purpose, four groups of 24 rats each were constituted; (Group 1: Control): received saline solution NaCl (0.9%), (Group 2: MEL4): received 4 mg/Kg of MEL, (Group 3: L-TRP4): received 4 mg/Kg of L-TRP and (Group 4: L-TRP20): received 20 mg/Kg of L-TRP. Animals of each group were distributed on 4 subgroups of 6 rats submitted to different time treatments. The duration of immobility (TIM) and struggling period (TST) of rats in FST were measured after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of drug treatment and the effects of MEL and L-TRP were compared. Chronical administration of different doses of MEL or L-TRP failed to induce any anti-depressant activity in rats subjected to FST after 2 weeks of treatment. However, after 4 weeks, daily administration of MEL at 4 mg/Kg significantly reduced the immobility period and enhanced struggling time. After 6 weeks, MEL at 4 mg/Kg and L-TRP at 20 mg/Kg were both effective in reducing immobility and increasing struggling movement, their effects being statistically comparable. All treatments were able to significantly reduce immobility time and increase struggling duration after 8 weeks, but L-TRP at 4 mg/Kg was less
Melatonin and Diazepam Affect Anxiety-Like and Depression-Like Behavior in Wistar Rats: Possible Interaction with Central GABA Neurotransmission  [PDF]
Sihame Ouakki, Fatima Zahra El Mrabet, Ibtissam Lagbouri, Aboubaker El Hessni, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Paul Pévet, Etienne Challet, Ali Ouichou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.37055
Abstract: Recent studies have shown the importance of the GABA-ergic transmission in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive disorders in humans. Our present study aims to investigate the interaction of melatonin (MEL) with this system by exploring the effects of MEL with or without a facilitator of GABA-ergic neurotransmission, diazepam (DZ) on the levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats. For this purpose, different doses of MEL (2, 4 or 16 mg/kg) or DZ (2 mg/kg) are subchronically administered during 15 days. After pharmacological treatments, anxiety levels are evaluated in behavioral tests of Open Field (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) and depression levels are evaluated by the forced swim test (FST). The results showed that MEL produces anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects in a dose-dependent manner; the maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 16 mg/kg. However, a dose of 4 mg/kg is necessary to induce an effect. The effect of MEL and DZ reported in this study concerns selective modulation of behavioral anxiety and depression since locomotor activity assessed by the OFT and EPM was not affected. The subchronic injection of MEL at 4 mg/kg, DZ at 2 mg/kg or the two combined molecules also induces also anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behavior. In addition, a potentiating effect between MEL and DZ was observed. These effects suggest that psychopharmacological actions of MEL are due, at least in part, to its ability to improve the central GABA-ergic transmission.
Effect of Chronic Aluminum Administration on Affective and Cognitive Behavior in Male and Female Rats  [PDF]
Oussama Zghari, Ayoub Rezqaoui, Sihame Ouakki, Mouloud Lamtai, Jihane Chaibat, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Aboubaker El Hessni, El-Housseine Rifi, Azzouz Essamri, Ali Ouichou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.84012
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure of low doses of Aluminum on affective and cognitive disorders in male and female rats. Twenty-five rats for each gender are used and the treatment carried out for 8 weeks. Animals received distilled water for control or an intraperitoneal injection of different doses of Aluminum: 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. Behavioral performance is measured in various tests mainly the Open Field, Elevated Plus Maze, Force Swimming Test, Morris Water Maze, Y-maze and Object Recognition Test. Al exerts anxiogenic properties and depressive effect. The effect begins at 0.25 mg/kg to reach a maximum at 1 mg/kg. In addition, chronic exposure to Aluminum causes cognitive disorders characterized by affection of memory and influence spatial learning performance. The effect of Aluminum on working memory is effective just at 1 mg/kg, while the effect on spatial learning performance begins at 0.25 mg/kg to reach a maximum at 1 mg/kg. In conclusion, Aluminum enhances anxiety and depression parameters and cognitive disorders characterized by the affection of memory and spatial learning performance.
Effect of Chronic Administration of Cadmium on Anxiety-Like, Depression-Like and Memory Deficits in Male and Female Rats: Possible Involvement of Oxidative Stress Mechanism  [PDF]
Mouloud Lamtai, Jihane Chaibat, Sihame Ouakki, Inssaf Berkiks, El-Housseine Rifi, Aboubaker El Hessni, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Ali Tadlaoui Hbibi, Hassna Ahyayauch, Azzouz Essamri, Ali Ouichou
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.85016
Abstract: The main objective of this work is to study the effect of chronic administration of cadmium (Cd) on the level of depression-like, anxiety-like, memory state and oxidative stress in male and female Wistar rats. For this purpose, this study was conducted with 24 rats for each gender. Four groups were constituted: (Group 1: Control): received saline solution NaCl (0.9%), (Group 2: Cd-0.25; Group 3: Cd-0.5; Group 4: Cd-1): received daily 0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg of Cd respectively during 8 weeks. After treatment period, animals were tested in the open-field, elevated plus maze tests for anxiety-like behavior, and forced swimming test for depression-like behavior. The Y maze was used to evaluate the working memory and the Morris Water Maze, to evaluate space learning and spatial memory. The results revealed that in males, all doses of Cd provoke depression-like, while in females only the group treated with 1 mg/kg Cd shows elevated depression-like behavior. In regard to anxiety-like behavior, Cd induces an anxiogenic effect in both genders tests. In the Y-Maze test, both males and females expressed a low percentage of alternations, suggesting that working memory was affected by Cd at 1 mg/kg. In the Morris Water Maze test, the space learning and spatial memory were significantly impaired in the group Cd-1. Neurochemical analysis showed that levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus were significantly increased after Cd treatments. Overall analysis of our data revealed that Cd caused significant alterations in the examined parameters that were sex-dependent and dose-dependent.
Modulation of Anxiolytic-Like and Antidepressant-Like Effects of Melatonin by Imipramine in Wistar Rats: Possible Interaction with Central Monoaminergic Systems  [PDF]
Sihame Ouakki, Oussama Zghari, Aboubaker El Hessni, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Ali Ouichou
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2019.102008
Abstract: Our current study aims to explore the interaction of melatonin (MEL) with the monoaminergic system on the pathophysiology of affective disorders in Wistar rats. We mention here that, the role of monoaminergic transmission in the pathophysiology of affective disorders in humans is demonstrated in most recent reports. In this sense, our current work aims to explore the effect of melatonin (MEL) with or without imipramine (IMP) on levels of depression and anxiety in Wistar rats and would determine the role of MEL in modulating serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. From this point, twenty-four female Wister rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals and received subcutaneously during 4 weeks different doses of MEL (4 mg/kg), IMP (2 mg/kg) or MEL (4 mg/kg) + IMP (2 mg/kg). Behavioral performance especially anxiety and depression is measured in the open field (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST). The anxiety-like and antidepressant-like effects were observed with MEL at 4 mg/Kg and IMP at 2 mg/Kg but the potentiating effect was more observed with the two combined molecules (MEL and IMP), since locomotors activity assessed by the OFT and EPM was not affected. These effects suggest that psychopharmacological actions of MEL are due, at least in part, to its ability to potentiate the central monoaminergic transmitter effects.
Affective Behavior Dysregulation Was Induced by Chronic Administration of Copper in Wistar Rats  [PDF]
Mouloud Lamtai, Sihame Ouakki, Oussama Zghari, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Aboubaker El Hessni, Ali Ouichou
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2019.102009
Abstract: As both deficiency and excess of copper (Cu) can be harmful, dysregulation in its homeostasis has been connected with various neurological disorders. The present study was undertaken to examine whether Cu chronic administration can induce alterations of affective behavior especially anxiety and depression levels in male and female rats. Twenty-four rats, for each gender, divided in control and three test groups (n = 6), were injected intraperitoneally with saline (0.9% NaCl) or CuCl2 (0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. After treatment period, animals were tested in the open-field, elevated plus maze tests for anxiety-like behavior, and forced swimming test for depression-like behavior. Results demonstrated that Cu administered chronically, exerts an anxiogenic effect in rats. In the OFT, Cu decreases the TCA and NRC parameters without modifying the locomotor activity represented by the NTS parameter. With regard to EPM, Cu decreases TOA and EOA parameters without modifying the TAE parameter. A significant increase in depression-like symptoms was also exhibited by Cu treated rats (p < 0.001). A dose of 1 mg/kg CuCl2 showed maximum anxiety-like and depression-like symptoms as compared to controls as well as from the other two doses indicating dose-dependent effects of chronic Cu administration. Overall, these results suggest that intoxication with Cu has potentially deleterious effects on brain as reflected in behavioral dysfunctions such as depression and anxiety.
Quality of life of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode: development and use of a telephone questionnaire
Eve Dubé, Philippe De Wals, Manale Ouakki
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-8-75
Abstract: A new questionnaire was specifically designed for use in telephone surveys. A random sample of Canadian families was selected using random-digit dialling. Caregivers of children 6-59 months of age who experienced at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months were interviewed. Multidimensional severity and global QOL scores were measured both for affected children and their caregivers. Internal consistency of scores was assessed using standard tests.Of the 502 eligible caregivers who completed the survey, 161 (32%) reported at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months and these cases were included in the analysis. Average severity was 2.6 for children and 2.4 for caregivers on a 1 to 4 scale (maximum severity). Cronbach alpha values were 0.78 and 0.81 for the severity score of children and caregivers respectively. Average QOL was 3.4 for children and 3.5 for caregivers on a 1 to 5 scale (best QOL). There was moderate to high correlation between severity and QOL scores, and between these scores and duration of AOM episodes.The questionnaire was easy to use during telephone interviews and results suggest good reliability and validity of the different scores to measure AOM severity and QOL of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode.Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common diseases of childhood and a leading cause of healthcare visits and antibiotic prescriptions [1]. Recurrent AOM is frequent and ≥ 3 episodes by one year of age have been reported in 10 to 19% of children [2]. In average, a child will experience four AOM episodes during the first 6 years of life [3]. AOM also disrupts daily activities of caregivers and negatively affects the lives of all household members [4,5]. Quality of life (QOL) has recently become accepted as a standard for overall policy evaluation of interventions [6]. QOL as a global and multidimensional concept, incorporates aspects of physical, functional, psychological, social, and economic well-being [7]. In
Human Papilloma Virus vaccine and cervical cancer screening acceptability among adults in Quebec, Canada
Chantal Sauvageau, Bernard Duval, Vladimir Gilca, France Lavoie, Manale Ouakki
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-304
Abstract: In 2006, 500 adults were invited to participate in a telephone survey in the region of Quebec City (urban and rural population, 600 000), Canada. Some neutral and standardized information on Pap test and HPV was provided before soliciting opinions.471 adults (18–69 year-olds) answered the questionnaire, the mean age was 45 years, 67% were female, and 65% had college or university degree. Eighty-six percent of women had undergone at least one Pap-test in their life, 55% in the last year, and 15% from 1 to 3 years ago. Among screened women, the test had been performed in the last three years in 100% of 18–30 year-olds, but only in 67% of 60–69 year-olds (P < 0.0001). Only 15% of respondents had heard of HPV. Eighty-seven percent agreed that HPV vaccines could prevent cervical cancer, 73% that the vaccine has to be administered before the onset of sexual activity, 89% would recommend vaccination to their daughters and nieces. Among respondents < 25 years, 91% would agree to receive the vaccine if it is publicly funded, but only 72% would agree to pay $100/dose.There is an important heterogeneity in cervical cancer screening frequency and coverage. Despite low awareness of HPV infection, the majority of respondents would recommend or are ready to receive the HPV vaccine, but the cost could prevent its acceptability.Genital Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). More than 50% of sexually active women have been infected with genital HPV at some time in their life [1-5]. Infection prevalence of up to 82% has been reported in adolescent and young adult women[4]. Approximately 15 virus genotypes cause virtually all cases of cervical cancer [6-8].Cervical cancer screening and treatment have been in place for more than four decades. There is now a new approach: vaccination against two of the most common disease-causing HPV genotypes. The HPV vaccines, if widely used, have the potential to prevent thousands of cases of cerv
High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women: A National Cross-Sectional Survey
Stefanie Vandevijvere, Sihame Amsalkhir, Herman Van Oyen, Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043868
Abstract: An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8–76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI = 41.9–47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI = 10.3–13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in Belgium and in Europe.
Synthesis of Substituted 1,4-Diazepines and 1,5-Benzodiazepines Using an Efficient Heteropolyacid-Catalyzed Procedure
Rachedine Kaoua,Norah Bennamane,Saliha Bakhta,Sihame Benadji,Cherifa Rabia,Bellara Nedjar-Kolli
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16010092
Abstract: An efficient and improved procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-diazepine and 1,5-benzodiazepine derivatives via the reaction of ketimine intermediates with aldehydes in the presence of Keggin-type heteropolyacids (HPAs) was developed. High yields and short reaction times were obtained for both electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing substituted 1,4-diazepine? and 1,5-benzodiazepines derivatives.
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