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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4137 matches for " Shyam Sundar Prasad "
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A Green and Reliable Internet of Things  [PDF]
Shyam Sundar Prasad, Chanakya Kumar
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.51B011
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is innovation in the field of Communication where a number of intelligent devices are involved sharing information and making collaborative decision. IOT is going to be a market-changing force for a wide variety of real-time monitoring applications, such as E-healthcare, homes automation system, environmental monitoring and industrial automation as it is supporting to a large number of characteristics and achieving better cost efficiency. This article explores the emerging IoT in terms of the potential Energy Efficiency Reliability (EER) issues. This paper discusses the potential EER barriers with examples and suggests remedies and techniques which are helpful in propelling the development and deployment of IoT applications.
Below out fracture of the orbital floor
Prasad Shyam
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1982,
Modern trends in keratoplasty
Prasad Shyam
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1979,
Efficacy and Safety of Amphotericin B Emulsion versus Liposomal Formulation in Indian Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Randomized, Open-Label Study
Shyam Sundar,Krishna Pandey ,Chandreshwar Prasad Thakur,Tara Kant Jha,Vidya Nand Ravi Das,Neena Verma,Chandra Shekhar Lal,Deepak Verma,Shahnawaz Alam,Pradeep Das
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003169
Abstract: Background India is home to 60% of the total global visceral leishmaniasis (VL) population. Use of long-term oral (e.g. miltefosine) and parenteral drugs, considered the mainstay for treatment of VL, is now faced with increased resistance, decreased efficacy, low compliance and safety issues. The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of an alternate treatment option, i.e. single infusion of preformed amphotericin B (AmB) lipid emulsion (ABLE) in comparison with that of liposomal formulation (LAmB). Methods In this multicentric, open-label study, 500 patients with VL were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 15 mg/kg single infusion of either ABLE (N = 376) or LAmB (N = 124). Initial cure (Day 30/45), clinical improvement (Day 30) and long term definitive cure (Day 180) were assessed. Findings A total of 326 (86.7%) patients in the ABLE group and 122 (98.4%) patients in the LAmB group completed the study. Initial cure was achieved by 95.9% of patients in the ABLE group compared to 100% in the LAmB group (p = 0.028; 95% CI: ?0.0663, ?0.0150). Clinical improvement was comparable between treatments (ABLE: 98.9% vs. LAmB: 98.4%). Definitive cure was achieved in 85.9% with ABLE compared to 98.4% with LAmB. Infusion-related pyrexia (37.2% vs. 32.3%) and chills (18.4% vs. 18.5%) were comparable between ABLE and LAmB, respectively. Treatment-related serious adverse events were fewer in ABLE (0.3%) compared to LAmB (1.6%). Two deaths occurred in the ABLE group, of which one was probably related to the study drug. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity was not observed in either group. Conclusions ABLE 15 mg/kg single infusion had favorable efficacy and was well tolerated. Considering the demographic profile of the population in this region, a single dose treatment offers advantages in terms of compliance, cost and applicability. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00876824
Antimony Toxicity
Shyam Sundar,Jaya Chakravarty
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7124267
Abstract: Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.
Liposomal amphotericin B and leishmaniasis: Dose and response
Sundar Shyam,Chakravarty Jaya
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases , 2010,
Abstract: Liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It is the treatment of choice for immunocompetent patients in the Mediterranean region and the preferred drug for HIV/VL co-infection. Although there is a regional variation in the susceptibility of the parasite a total dose of 20 mg/kg is effective in immunocompetent patients. Randomized clinical trials of liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment and secondary prophylaxis of HIV-VL coinfected patients is urgently needed to optimize treatment in this subset. With the availability of Liposomal amphotericin B at a preferential pricing in the endemic areas, short course combination therapy can become a viable alternative.
Drug resistance in leishmaniasis
Chakravarty Jaya,Sundar Shyam
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases , 2010,
Abstract: The treatment options of leishmaniasis are limited and far from satisfactory. For more than 60 years, treatment of leishmaniasis has centered around pentavalent antimonials (Sb v ). Widespread misuse has led to the emergence of Sb v resistance in the hyperendemic areas of North Bihar. Other antileishmanials could also face the same fate, especially in the anthroponotic cycle. The HIV/ visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfected patients are another potential source for the emergence of drug resistance. At present no molecular markers of resistance are available and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of isolates is the technically demanding in vitro amastigote-macrophage model. As the armametrium of drugs for leishmaniasis is limited, it is important that effective monitoring of drug use and response should be done to prevent the spread of resistance. Regimens of simultaneous or sequential combinations should be seriously considered to limit the emergence of resistance.
BV regularity near the interface for nonuniform convex discontinuous flux
Shyam Sundar Ghoshal
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the total variation bound for the solution of scalar conservation laws with discontinuous flux. We prove the smoothing effect of the equation forcing the $BV_{loc}$ solution near the interface for $L^\infty$ initial data without the assumption on the uniform convexity of the fluxes made as in [1,21]. The proof relies on the method of characteristics and the explicit formulas.
SO2 Oxidation Efficiency Patterns during an Episode of Plume Transport over Northeast India: Implications to an OH Minimum  [PDF]
Timmy Francis, Shyam Sundar Kundu, Ramabadran Rengarajan, Arup Borgohain
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.810071
Abstract: Systematic monitoring of the fluctuations in atmospheric SO2 oxidation efficiency—measured as a molar ratio of SO42- to total SOx (SOx=SO2+SO42-), referred as S-ratio—have been performed during a major long range plume transport to northeast India (Shillong: 25.67°N, 91.91°E, 1064 m ASL) in March 2009. Anomalously low S-ratios (median, 0.03) were observed during the episode—associated with a cyclonic circulation—and the SO42- and SO2 exhibited unusual features in the ‘relative phase’ of their peaks. During initial days, when SO2 levels were dictated by the long range influx, the SO42- and SO2 variabilities were in anti-phase—for the differing mobility/loss mechanisms. When SO2 levels were governed by the boundary layer diurnality in the latter days, the anti-phase is explained by a ‘depleted OH level’—major portion being consumed in the initial period by the elevated SO2 and other pollutants. Simulations with a global 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem (v8-03-01), also indicated ‘suppressed oxidation conditions’—with characteristic low S-ratios and poor phase agreements. The modelled OH decreased steadily from the initial days, and OH normalized to SO2—referred as OHspecific—was consistently low during the ‘suppressed S-ratio period’. Further, the geographical distribution of modelled OH showed a pronounced minimum over the region surrounding (20°N, 95°E) spanning parts of northeast India and the adjacent regions to the southeast of it—prevalent throughout the year, though the magnitude and the area of influence have a seasonality to it—with significant implications for reducing the oxidizing power of the regional atmosphere. A second set of measurements during January 2010—when prominent long range transports were absent—exhibited no anomalies, and the S-ratios were well within the acceptable limits (median, 0.32). This work highlights the GEOS-Chem model skill in simulating/detecting the ‘transient fluctuations’ in the oxidation efficiency, down to a regional scale.
Supracutaneous Locking Compression Plate for Grade I & II Compound Fracture Distal Tibia—A Case Series  [PDF]
S. K. Venkatesh Gupta, Shyam Prasad Parimala
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.32021

Background: Supracutaneous plating using a locking compression plate (LCP) as an external fixator in compound periarticular areas is facilitated by the development of anatomical plates. The soft tissue around the distal tibia is easily compromised by trauma and subsequent operative fracture treatment posing a definitive challenge in the distal tibia compound fractures. The purpose of this report is to describe our successful results using the metaphyseal locking compression plate (LCP) as an external fixator in the treatment of Grade I & II compound fractures of distal tibia. Methodology: A total of five (05) patients underwent “supracutaneous plating” of the tibia using a metaphyseal locking compression plate. Average age was 36 years. Regular screw tract dressings were done. Average period of follow-up was 15 months. Results: The plate was in situ for an average of 24 weeks. There were no clinically significant screw site infections. In all five patients the plate was kept in place until there was complete consolidation both clinically and radiologically. At the latest follow-up (average 15 months), all patients were fully weight bearing with a fully healed tibia. All patients were infection-free with well-healed wounds. Conclusion: Routinely, after initial debridement and temporary bony stabilization is provided by external fixation in compound fractures of the distal tibia with significant soft tissue injury. Most external frames for the lower leg are bulky and cumbersome, causing significant problems for the patient. To circumvent these issues, we have successfully used an anatomically-contoured supracutaneous metaphyseal locking compression plate as external fixator in a series of five patients for grade I & II compound fracture of the distal tibia.

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