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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 661 matches for " Shyam Diwakar "
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Integrating Collaboration and Accessibility for Deploying Virtual Labs using VLCAP
Raghu Raman, Prema Nedungadi,Prema Nedungadi,Krishnashree Achuthan,Shyam Diwakar
International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies , 2011,
Abstract: The Virtual Labs Collaboration and Accessibility Platform (VLCAP) provides tools to further India’s National Mission project: the building of over 150 Virtual Labs (VL) for over 1450 multi-disciplinary undergraduate- and postgraduate-level experiments. VLCAP optimizes VL development and deployment costs and ensures a rich, consistent learning experience. Its multi-tier, scalable architecture allows VL builders to focus on their experiments. Its modules (VL workbench, collaborative content management, repositories) have axiomatically-designed interfaces that bring speed and efficiency to design. Its integration of user-management tasks (single sign-on, role-based access control, etc.) enhances flexibility without compromising security. The key accomplishments include its application of simulation VL and its provision of easily usable authoring tools, pre-configured templates, and management and assessment modules for instructors. VLCAP’s support of multiple deployment models, including the cloud, hosted, and mixed models, ensures scalable and reliable usage in hosted environments, and secure access for learners in remote locations.
On Farm Conservation of Crop Genetic Resource: Declining De Facto Diversity and Optimal Funding Strategy  [PDF]
Diwakar Poudel
Natural Resources (NR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2015.63018
Abstract: Crop genetic resources (CGRs) are crucial natural resource which ensure food or livelihood security of billions of people today as well as ensure future agricultural innovations. However, the CGR diversity remaining in in situ, particularly in subsistence farming is becoming extinct due to change in economic and technological development over time. An optimal funding strategy is required for conservation of these CGRs. In this paper, I have discussed an economic perspective on why and how the De Facto crop genetic resources (CGRs) diversity declines with changing economic and environmental context. The model maximizes the net revenue from the farmers land allocation strategy to different CGRs under economic and technical constraints with linear demand and cost functions. Furthermore, the model suggests how to minimize the cost of on farm conservation of these crop genetic resources in situ (or ex situ) without forfeiting farmer’s well-being in a changing perspective of economics and technology. The theoretical model developed in this study is employed to demonstrate the applicability for on farm conservation of rice genetic diversity in Nepal. The study suggests an optimal fund allocation strategy that minimizes the cost of conservation by (i) identifying particular CGRs (rice landraces) that are prone to extinct from the community and (ii) categorizing the farmers in the community having minimum cost of conservation for those particular landraces. As the model maximizes the farmers’ revenues, it could ensure better livelihood of individuals in the community while minimizing the cost of in situ conservation of biodiversity on farm.
Modeling Spike-Train Processing in the Cerebellum Granular Layer and Changes in Plasticity Reveal Single Neuron Effects in Neural Ensembles
Chaitanya Medini,Bipin Nair,Egidio D'Angelo,Giovanni Naldi,Shyam Diwakar
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/359529
Abstract: The cerebellum input stage has been known to perform combinatorial operations on input signals. In this paper, two types of mathematical models were used to reproduce the role of feed-forward inhibition and computation in the granular layer microcircuitry to investigate spike train processing. A simple spiking model and a biophysically-detailed model of the network were used to study signal recoding in the granular layer and to test observations like center-surround organization and time-window hypothesis in addition to effects of induced plasticity. Simulations suggest that simple neuron models may be used to abstract timing phenomenon in large networks, however detailed models were needed to reconstruct population coding via evoked local field potentials (LFP) and for simulating changes in synaptic plasticity. Our results also indicated that spatio-temporal code of the granular network is mainly controlled by the feed-forward inhibition from the Golgi cell synapses. Spike amplitude and total number of spikes were modulated by LTP and LTD. Reconstructing granular layer evoked-LFP suggests that granular layer propagates the nonlinearities of individual neurons. Simulations indicate that granular layer network operates a robust population code for a wide range of intervals, controlled by the Golgi cell inhibition and is regulated by the post-synaptic excitability. 1. Introduction Decoding neural activity is the key to understand spatiotemporal patterns that the brain receives as sensory information regarding the world. Time-scale of operation is closely correlated to the activity of the neural circuit and decoding such activity reveals principles regarding the function. One of the main circuits in the cerebellum is the large input layer circuit formed of granule and Golgi cells. Spatiotemporal information is one of the unique functional characteristics observed in the cerebellar input layer network [1, 2]. Cerebellar granular layer forms the input stage of the cerebellum in which information coming from the peripheral and central systems converge through the mossy fibers. The granular layer has by far the smallest (~5?μm) and the most numerous neurons (~1011) in humans. Understanding how the granular layer process information appears critical to understand the cerebellar function, since signals coming into upper cortical layers are provided by the granular layer. The granule cells form the largest neuronal population in the mammalian brain and regulate information transfer along the major afferent systems to the cerebellum. The granule layer receives
Sakshat Labs: India's Virtual Proteomics Initiative
Sandipan Ray,Nicole R. Koshy,Shyam Diwakar,Bipin Nair,Sanjeeva Srivastava
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001353
Abstract:
Local Field Potential Modeling Predicts Dense Activation in Cerebellar Granule Cells Clusters under LTP and LTD Control
Shyam Diwakar, Paola Lombardo, Sergio Solinas, Giovanni Naldi, Egidio D'Angelo
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021928
Abstract: Local field-potentials (LFPs) are generated by neuronal ensembles and contain information about the activity of single neurons. Here, the LFPs of the cerebellar granular layer and their changes during long-term synaptic plasticity (LTP and LTD) were recorded in response to punctate facial stimulation in the rat in vivo. The LFP comprised a trigeminal (T) and a cortical (C) wave. T and C, which derived from independent granule cell clusters, co-varied during LTP and LTD. To extract information about the underlying cellular activities, the LFP was reconstructed using a repetitive convolution (ReConv) of the extracellular potential generated by a detailed multicompartmental model of the granule cell. The mossy fiber input patterns were determined using a Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm. The major component of the LFP was generated by the granule cell spike Na+ current, which caused a powerful sink in the axon initial segment with the source located in the soma and dendrites. Reproducing the LFP changes observed during LTP and LTD required modifications in both release probability and intrinsic excitability at the mossy fiber-granule cells relay. Synaptic plasticity and Golgi cell feed-forward inhibition proved critical for controlling the percentage of active granule cells, which was 11% in standard conditions but ranged from 3% during LTD to 21% during LTP and raised over 50% when inhibition was reduced. The emerging picture is that of independent (but neighboring) trigeminal and cortical channels, in which synaptic plasticity and feed-forward inhibition effectively regulate the number of discharging granule cells and emitted spikes generating “dense” activity clusters in the cerebellar granular layer.
Sakshat Labs: India's Virtual Proteomics Initiative
Sandipan Ray,Nicole R. Koshy,Shyam Diwakar,Bipin Nair,Sanjeeva Srivastava
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001353
Abstract:
Immunotherapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies  [PDF]
Diwakar Davar, Weijing Sun
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.56072
Abstract:

Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies (esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, intra- and extra-biliary ductal, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancers) are an important cause of cancer incidence and mortality in the US and globally. GI cancers account for 15.4% and 23.8% of incident cancers and cancer-related deaths respectively in the US alone. Although earlier diagnosis and treatment advances have improved outcomes for some GI malignancies, the need for improved therapies in all disease phases (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and advanced) is paramount. Utilization of monoclonal antibodies targeting against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has shown the success in selected colorectal carcinoma patients. More investigations of immunotherapy are on going in the treatment of GI malignances with different mechanisms and methods. In this article, we review data for established and evolving immunotherapy-related treatment options in GI malignancies.

Effect of untreated bed nets on blood-fed Phlebotomus argentipes in kala-azar endemic foci in Nepal and India
Picado, Albert;Kumar, Vijay;Das, Murari;Burniston, Ian;Roy, Lalita;Suman, Rijal;Dinesh, Diwakar;Coosemans, Marc;Sundar, Shyam;Shreekant, Kesari;Boelaert, Marleen;Davies, Clive;Cameron, Mary;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000800018
Abstract: observational studies in the indian subcontinent have shown that untreated nets may be protective against visceral leishmaniasis (vl). in this study, we evaluated the effect of untreated nets on the blood feeding rates of phlebotomus argentipes as well as the human blood index (hbi) in vl endemic villages in india and nepal. the study had a "before and after intervention" design in 58 households in six clusters. the use of untreated nets reduced the blood feeding rate by 85% (95% ci 76.5-91.1%) and the hbi by 42.2% (95% ci 11.1-62.5%). these results provide circumstantial evidence that untreated nets may provide some degree of personal protection against sand fly bites.
ELASTICITY OF INTERNET TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN COMPUTER NETWORK IN TWO MARKET ENVIRONMENT
Diwakar Shukla
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: The Internet service is managed by operators and each one tries to capture larger proportion of Internet traffic. This tendency causes inherent competition in the market. The location of the market in also an important factor. This paper assumes two different markets and two operators are in competition. It is found that elasticities value depend on market position. The priority position market has higher level. This paper present Elasticities analysis of traffic sharing pattern among operators. Simulation study is performing to analyze the Elasticities impact on traffic sharing. Keywords: Markov chain model, Transition probability, Initial preference, Blocking probability, Call-by-call basis, Internet service providers [operators or ISP], Quality of service (QOS), Transition probability matrix.
ELASTICITY OF INTERNET TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN COMPUTER NETWORK IN TWO MARKET ENVIRONMENT
Diwakar Shukla
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: The Internet service is managed by operators and each one tries to capture larger proportion of Internet traffic. This tendency causes inherent competition in the market. The location of the market in also an important factor. This paper assumes two different markets and two operators are in competition. It is found that elasticities value depend on market position. The priority position market has higher level. This paper present Elasticities analysis of traffic sharing pattern among operators. Simulation study is performing to analyze the Elasticities impact on traffic sharing. Keywords-Markov chain model, Transition probability, Initial preference, Blocking probability, Call-by-call basis, Internet service providers [operators or ISP], Quality of service (QOS), Transition probability matrix.
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