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Genomic Profiling of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Shunichi Yoshioka, Yoshiyuki Tsukamoto, Naoki Hijiya, Chisato Nakada, Tomohisa Uchida, Keiko Matsuura, Ichiro Takeuchi, Masao Seto, Kenji Kawano, Masatsugu Moriyama
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056165
Abstract: We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs) related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs) with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs), and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs). Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.
Constructing a Coactivation Model for Explaining Humor Elicitation  [PDF]
Ryota Nomura, Shunichi Maruno
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.25074
Abstract: The present study first aimed to construct a coactivation model that integrates cognitive and motivational variables that determine an individual’s conscious humor experience. It then aimed to test the model’s reliability, validity, and generalizability. As part of the study, 16 (out of 48) four-frame cartoons were randomly presented to 201 (42 male and 159 female) high school students and 302 (185 male and 117 female) undergraduate and graduate students (age range was 15 to 23, M = 18.15, SD = 1.79) who were instructed to rate items related to the variable humor. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the generalizability of the model to predict the humor experience to a great extent within different population samples was shown. Furthermore, the theoretical prediction of the coactivation model was supported. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of future research that could demonstrate the possible application of the coactivation model.
Potential for Biomass and Biofuel through Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture and Reduction of Food Losses and Waste  [PDF]
Jeffrey Skeer, Shunichi Nakada
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.71002
Abstract: Substantial potential exists to expand supplies of biomass for energy applications through more systematic collection of agricultural residues, more intensive cultivation of croplands, and reduced waste and losses in the food chain. This study aims to show how the potential can be calculated from public information sources, to put the potential in the context of global needs for liquid transport fuels, and to suggest some practical policy options for bringing part of the potential to market. It finds that if the theoretical potential is fully realized, enough liquid biofuel could be produced to displace the equivalent of all current global liquid fuel use for transport.
The Efficacy of the EUS for the Detection of Recurrent Disease in the Anastomosis of Colon
Shunichi Nakajima
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/dte.7.149
Abstract: Patients who underwent surgical resection of an advanced colorectal cancer during the period from June 1982 to July 2001 were examined for evidence of no anastomotic recurrence or recurrent lesions through combination of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) with endoscopy. Included in this study were 11 patients with recurrence and 36 patients without recurrence, 47 patients in all. Endoscopy revealed stenosis in 81.8% of patients with ana anastomotic recurrence, erosion including cancer exposure in 81.8% and submucosal tumor-like elevation in 45.5%. In the group of patients without recurrence it revealed stenosis in 13.9% of patients, erosion in 22.2%, and a scar-like change in 77.8%. There was a significant difference between the two groups in each change. EUS, on the other hand, revealed localized hypertrophy of the region extending from the submucosa to the mp due to edema early in the postoperative course. The rate of definitive diagnosis with EUS was 100%, compared to 90.1% for endoscopy. The results of this study indicate that EUS is helpful in detecting anastomotic recurrence of colorectal cancer.
A solitary-wave representation of turbulence in the physical-plus-eddy space
Shunichi Tsuge
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: A unique form of turbulent-transport equations is derived based on first principles.The role of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics employed to describe the phenomenology is that it enables to single out the unique form consistent with master equation of Liouville, a prerequisite not met with existing equations for turbulence modeling.The equation is variable-separated to yield a Navier-Stokes equation in 6D(physical-plus-eddy) space with homogeneous boundary conditions.Turbulent transports such as Reynolds' stress are calculated using a solution of this equation; a solitary-wave function.Satisfactory agreement is observed with existing experiment for mixing shear layer of incompressible flows although no empirical constants are involved.
The Kolmogorov turbulence theory in the light of six-dimensional Navier-Stokes' equation
Shunichi Tsuge
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The classical turbulence theory by Kolmogorov is reconsidered using Navier-Stokes' equation generalized to 6D physical-plus-eddy space. Strong pseudo-singularity is shown to reveal itself along the boundary `ridge' line separating the dissipation and inertial sub-ranges surrounding the origin of the eddy space. A speculation is made that this singularity is generated by two dipoles of opposite sign aligned on the common axis. It is supported by the observation that the universal power spectrum calculated rediscovers the Kolmogorov's -5/3 power law as independent of the dimensional approach.
First principle basis of the direct numerical simulation for turbulence of inert and reactive gases
Shunichi Tsuge
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: An open question of whether phenomenological fluid equations to be used for direct numerical simulation of turbulence are warranted on `first principles' is addressed, and the problem is posed using Klimontovich microscopic density to replace the Boltzmann function of the classical statistical mechanics. For inert monatomic gases, it is shown that all the gasdynamic equations, namely, the three conservation equations plus the Navier-Stokes stress law and the Fourier heat conduction law are retrieved as governing instantaneous quantities, without having recourse to any concepts of averaging or statistical equilibrium. For reactive gases, however, the Arrhenius reaction rate law written in terms of the fluctuating temperature is not justified, reflecting the fact that this rate law hinges crucially on these concepts.
Rate increase in chemical reaction and its variance under turbulent equilibrium
Shunichi Tsuge
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: As contrast to the Maxwellian distribution, equilibrium distribution of the second kind or turbulent equilibrium is shown to exist under tertiary molecular chaos hypothesis to replace the classical binary chaos by Boltzmann. It is expressed as bimodal Maxwellians each mode differing by plus/minus root-mean-squares of fluctuations in macroscopic variables. Chemical reaction rates calculated using the turbulent-equilibrium are obtained in a closed form, accounting for discrepancy between experiments and classical theory based on Arrhenius' law that underestimates the burning rate considerably. The key issue is the correct estimation of the high-energy tail of the distribution function that is minor in population, yet playing a major role for reactions with high activation energy. It is extremely sensitive to turbulence level in the temperature, causing slightly subcritical molecules to clear the potential barrier to cause reactions just like quantum particles undergoing tunnelling effect owing to the uncertainty principle. Variance of the fluctuating turbulent chemical reaction rate is also calculated, verifying that relative variance based on the turbulent equilibrium is low, whereas its classical counterpart (Arrhenius) is pathologically high. A closed set of equations governing reactive turbulent gases is presented on this sound basis.
Additive Effects of Rare-Earth Ions in Sodium Aluminoborate Glasses Using 23Na and 27Al Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  [PDF]
Shunichi Kaneko, Yomei Tokuda, Hirokazu Masai
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2017.73006
Abstract: We conducted structural analysis of xNa2O-yY2O3-5B2O3-3Al2O3 and xNa2O-yLa2O3-5B2O3-3Al2O3 glasses to elucidate the additive effects of rare-earth ions in these sodium aluminoborate glasses, and investigated the local environment
Is Japanese Politics 'Un-Westminster'? Examining the Role of the PARC
YOSHIOKA, Masatsugu
Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies , 2007,
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