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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 80861 matches for " Shude Liu "
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On the diffuse soft X-ray emission from the nuclear region of M51
Jiren Liu,Shude Mao
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1674-4527/15/12/004
Abstract: We present an analysis of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from the nuclear region of M51 combining both XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra data. Most of the RGS spectrum of M51 can be fitted with a thermal model with a temperature of $\sim0.5$ keV except for the OVII triplet, which is forbidden-line dominated. The Fe L-shell lines peak around the southern cloud, where the OVIII and NVII Lya lines also peak. In contrast, the peak of the OVII forbidden line is about 10$"$ offset from that of the other lines, indicating that it is from a spatially distinct component. The spatial distribution of the OVII triplet mapped by the Chandra data shows that most of the OVII triplet flux is located at faint regions near edges, instead of the southern cloud where other lines peak. This distribution of the OVII triplet is inconsistent with the photoionization model. Other mechanisms that could produce the anomalous OVII triplet, including a recombining plasma and charge exchange X-ray emission, are discussed.
Distribution of c-erbB2 Antisense Probe Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in the Major Organs of Mice on MR Imaging  [PDF]
Zhipeng Wen, Haiyan Liu, Hairong He, Shude Tan, Ming Wen, Shaolin Li
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.21004

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the c-erbB2 antisense probe labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the major organs of mice by MR imaging. Methods: Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. MR scans were performed in each mouse of the experimental group at five different time points (10, 30, 60, 180 and 360 min) after injection of the antisense probe. The signal from each major organ (liver, spleen, heart, kidney and muscle tissue) in comparison with the background signal (signal to noise ratio) was determined at each time point as a measure of the distribution of the antisense probe. Six control mice were killed at each of the same time points and the organs immediately removed for determination of their iron content. Results: After injection of the antisense probe, the highest enrichment of the probe was seen in the spleen, reaching a peak at 180 min, followed by the liver, muscle, heart and kidney. Conclusions: MR imaging can visualize the distribution of c-erbB2 antisense probe labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the major organs of mice, and this may provide the basis for further in vivo studies of MR imaging time and dose selection.

On the soft X-ray emission of M82
Jiren Liu,Q. Daniel Wang,Shude Mao
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1002/asna.201211667
Abstract: We present a spatial analysis of the soft X-ray and H{\alpha} emissions from the outflow of the starburst galaxy M82. We find that the two emissions are tightly correlated on various scales. The O VII triplet of M82, as resolved by X-ray grating observations of XMM-Newton, is dominated by the forbidden line, inconsistent with the thermal prediction. The O VII triplet also shows some spatial variations. We discuss three possible explanations for the observed O VII triplet, including the charge exchange at interfaces between the hot outflow and neutral cool gas, a collisional non-equilibrium-ionization recombining plasma, and resonance scattering.
Charge Exchange X-ray Emission of Nearby Star-forming Galaxies
Jiren Liu,Q. Daniel Wang,Shude Mao
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20263.x
Abstract: Properties of hot gas outflows from galaxies are generally measured from associated X-ray line emission assuming that it represents atomic transitions in thermally excited hot gas. X-ray line emission, however, can also arise from the charge exchange between highly ionised ions and neutral species. The K\alpha\ triplet of He-like ions can be used as a powerful diagnostic, because the charge exchange X-ray emission (CXE) favours the inter-combination and forbidden lines, while the thermal emission favours the resonance line. We analyse the OVII triplet of a sample of nine nearby star-forming galaxies observed by the XMM-Newton reflection grating spectrometers. For most galaxies, the forbidden lines are comparable to or stronger than the resonance lines, which is in contrast to the thermal prediction. For NGC 253, M51, M83, M61, NGC 4631, and the Antennae galaxy, the observed line ratios are consistent with the ratio of the CXE; for M94 and NGC 2903, the observed ratios indicate multiple origins; for M82, different regions show different line ratios, also indicating multiple origins. We discuss other possible mechanisms that can produce a relatively strong forbidden line, such as a collisional non-equilibrium-ionization recombining/ionizing plasma, which are not favoured. These results suggest that the CXE may be a common process and contribute a significant fraction of the soft X-ray line emission for galaxies with massive star formation.
Charge Exchange X-ray Emission of M82: Kα triplets of O VII, Ne IX, and Mg XI
Jiren Liu,Shude Mao,Q. Daniel Wang
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2011.01079.x
Abstract: Starburst galaxies are primary feedback sources of mechanical energy and metals, which are generally measured from associated X-ray emission lines assuming that they are from the thermal emission of the outflowing hot gas. Such line emission, however, can also arise from the charge exchange X-ray emission (CXE) between highly ionized ions and neutral species. To understand the feedback of energy and metals, it is crucial to determine the origin of the X-ray emission lines and to distinguish the contributions from the CXE and the thermal emission. The origin of the lines can be diagnosed by the K{\alpha} triplets of He-like ions, because the CXE favors the inter-combination and forbidden lines, while the thermal emission favors the resonance line. We analyze the triplets of O VII, Ne IX, and Mg XI observed in the XMM- Newton reflection grating spectra of the starburst galaxy M82. The flux contribution of the CXE is 90%, 50%, and 30% to the O VII, Ne IX, and Mg XI triplet, respectively. Averaged over all the three triplets, the contribution of the CXE is \sim 50% of the total observed triplet flux. To correctly understand the hot outflow of starburst galaxies, it is necessary to include the CXE. Based on the measured CXE contributions to the O VII, Ne IX, and Mg XI triplets, we estimate the relative abundances of O, Ne, and Mg of the outflow and find they are similar to the solar ratios.
CREB-binding proteins (CBP) as a transcriptional coactivator of GATA-2
HuiJie Jiang,LinDe Liu,ShuDe Yang,Takahashi Tomomi,Nakano Toru
Science China Life Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-008-0038-4
Abstract: The GATA family consists of six members, GATA 1-6. In this study, we focused on GATA-2, which is expressed predominantly in hematopoietic progenitor cells and plays the key role in keeping these cells in the undifferentiated status. CREB-binding proteins (CBP) are essential transcriptional coactivators for a large number of regulated DNA-binding transcription factors, including GATA-1. But there have been no reports on whether CBP is still a co-activator of GATA-2. Here, we used the immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments to show that the GATA-2 and CBP were physically binding together, and clarified the binding sites CH1, CH3, CH452 and CT1430 in CBP and N-finger, C-finger and N-C-finger in GATA-2. Luciferase assay results in our experiment indicated that CBP could increase GATA-2 transcriptional activity in the dose-dependent manner. GATA-1 is mainly expressed in differentiated hematopoietic cells, but still has overlap expression with GATA-2. CBP is a coactivator of GATA-2 and GATA-1. The investigation on the mechanism that could decide whether CBP binds to GATA-2 to keep hematopoietic cells in the progenitor status or to GATA-1 to start differentiation will be a very interesting and very meaningful project in the near future.
Temporal and spatial patterns of the ichthyoplankton community in the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent waters

Shude Liu,Weiwei Xian,

生物多样性 , 2009,
Abstract: 根据2007年长江口及其邻近水域4个航次调查资料, 探讨了该水域的鱼类浮游生物群落物种组成和多样性的季节变化特征。结果表明, 2007年共捕获鱼类浮游生物6,463个, 隶属12目28科45种, 以鳀科丰度最高, 占总丰度的76.5%。长江口鱼类浮游生物包括4种生态类型: 淡水型(2种), 半咸水型(14种), 沿岸型(10种)和近海型(16种)。 其中, 近海型物种个体数量最多, 占2007年长江口鱼类浮游生物总丰度的74.55%。鳀(Engraulis japonicus)在4个季节均有出现, 对长江口鱼类浮游生物丰度贡献最大。鱼类浮游生物在物种组成上存在明显的季节变化: 白氏银汉鱼(Allanetta bleekeri)在春季占绝对优势, 鳀是夏季优势度最高的种类, 秋季除鳀外, 前颌间银鱼(Hemisalanx prognathus)成为优势种; 鱼类浮游生物丰度高度集中在优势种上, 各季节优势种对总丰度贡献超过89%。群落物种数量、丰度、丰富度指数、均匀度指数和多样性指数, 在夏季最高, 春季和秋季次之, 冬季最低。长江口鱼类浮游生物群落物种组成和多样性的季节变化特征体现了鱼类繁殖迁移策略和鱼类对环境变异的响应。
Singularly Perturbed Solution for Semilinear Higher OrderElliptic Equations with Two Parameters

LIU Shude,MO Jiaqi,

系统科学与数学 , 2009,
Abstract: A class of boundary value problems for semilinear higher order elliptic equations with two parameters is considered. Under suitable conditions, by using the theory of differential inequalities the existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for boundary value problems are studied.
Fe K lines in the nuclear region of M82
Jiren Liu,Lijun Gou,Weimin Yuan,Shude Mao
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slt145
Abstract: We study the spatial distribution of the Fe 6.4 and 6.7 keV lines in the nuclear region of M82 using the Chandra archival data with a total exposure time of 500 ks. The deep exposure provides a significant detection of the Fe 6.4 keV line. Both the Fe 6.4 and 6.7 keV lines are diffuse emissions with similar spatial extent, but their morphology do not exactly follow each other. Assuming a thermal collisional-ionization-equilibrium model, the fitted temperatures are around 5-6 keV and the Fe abundances are about 0.4-0.6 solar value. We also report the spectrum of a point source, which shows a strong Fe 6.7 keV line and is likely a supernova remnant or a superbubble. The fitted Fe abundance of the point source is 1.7 solar value. It implies that part of the iron may be depleted from the X-ray emitting gases as the predicted abundance is about 5 solar value assuming complete mixing. If this is a representative case of the Fe enrichment, a mild mass-loading of a factor of 3 will make the Fe abundance of the point source in agreement with that of the hot gas, which then implies that most of the hard X-ray continuum (2-8 keV) of M82 has a thermal origin. In addition, the Fe 6.4 keV line is consistent with the fluorescence emission irradiated by the hard photons from nuclear point sources.
Star formation activities in early-type brightest cluster galaxies
F. S. Liu,Shude Mao,X. M. Meng
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20886.x
Abstract: We identify a total of 120 early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) at 0.1
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