Abstract:
Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris caused black rot disease of crucifers occurs worldwide and causes substantial losses under favorable conditions. A bio-PCR based method has been standardized for the rapid and reliable diagnosis of the black rot disease in crucifers. Primers were used specifically to amplify a 619bp fragment of the hrpF gene from X. campestris. To test specificity of primers, DNA of X. campestris pv. campestris, and other species of Xanthomonas

Abstract:
We study in detail the influence of molecular interactions on the Frank elastic constants of uniaxial nematic liquid crystals composed of molecules of cylindrical symmetry. A brief summary of the status of theoretical development for the elastic constants of nematics is presented. Considering a pair potential having both repulsive and attractive parts numerical calculations are reported for three systems MBBA, PAA and 8OCB. For these systems the length-to-width ratio ${x_0}$ is estimated from the experimentally proposed structure of the molecules. The repulsive interaction is represented by a repulsion between hard ellipsoids of revolution (HER) and the attractive potential is represented by the quadrupole and dispersion interactions. From the numerical results we observe that in the density range of nematics the contribution of the quadrupole and dispersion interactions are small as compared to the repulsive HER interaction. The inclusion of attractive interaction reduces the values of elastic constants ratios. The temperature variation of elastic constants ratios are reported and compared with the experimental values. A reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment is observed.

Abstract:
Einstein's field equations with variable gravitational and cosmological constants are considered in the presence of bulk viscous fluid for the totally anisotropic Bianchi type II space-time in such a way as to preserve the energy momentum tensor. We have presented solutions of field equations which represent expanding, shearing and non-rotating cosmological models of the universe. The physical behaviours of the models are discussed .We observe that the results obtained match with recent observations of SNIa.

Abstract:
The rate of increase in solar activity at the initiation of solar cycle 22 had led the activity during the solar maximum years 1990-1991, be the most severe of any period during the space age. Solar cycle 23 started in May 1996 and ended in December 2008. Total time period of this solar cycle is 12.6 years. The maximum smoothed sunspot number observed during the solar cycle was 120.8 and minimum was 1.7. It is apparent that solar cycle 23 is a long one. Solar cycle 24 (initiated in December 2008) seems to be weak, which will have a slow ramp up, much slower than the late 19th century cycles used for comparison. In the present work, we have considered Sunspot number (Rz) as an index of solar activity, which shows a predominant 11 year cycle. The strength of the solar cycle makes a huge difference to satellite operators. Each solar peak heats and expands the outer atmosphere. The strength of the solar-cycle length, annual average and temperature correlation enables solar cycle length to be used as a climate predictor tool.

Abstract:
The general formalism for polarization observables in elastic electron deuteron scattering is extended to incorporate parity and time reversal violating contributions. Parity violating effects arise from the interference of $\gamma$ and $Z$ exchange as well as from the hadronic sector via a small parity violating component in the deuteron. In addition we have allowed for time reversal invariance violating contributions in the hadronic sector. Formal expressions for the additional structure functions are derived, and their decomposition into the various multipole contributions are given explicitly.

Abstract:
Two recent, moderate earthquakes (March 27, 1996, Mw=5.4; January 21, 1997, Mw=5.4), which occurred close to the town of Pinotepa Nacional, Oaxaca, Mexico, were recorded at the near-source VBB station of PNIG and by several other stations of the Mexican VBB seismological network located at regional distance. Both events saturated the velocity sensor (STS-2) at PNIG. We first use velocity and displacement records, obtained by direct integration of the accelerograms at PNIG, to obtain location, depth, origin time, focal mechanism, seismic moment, and source time function of the two earthquakes. We then perform a moment tensor (MT) inversion of regional band-pass filtered (20 to 50 sec) displacement seismograms to estimate the source parameters of the two earthquakes. For these events, the MT solutions are reasonably close to those obtained from the near-source data of the single station of PNIG. Our results show that: (a) detailed source parameters can be retrieved from a single, near-source, high-quality three-component recording, and (b) a rough estimation of focal mechanism and seismic moment of Mexican earthquakes may be possible from MT inversion of regional data using presently known crustal structure. But more precise determinations would require a better knowledge of this structure, mainly to estimate the centroid depth.

Abstract:
An anisotropic Bianchi type-III cosmological model is investigated in the presence of a bulk viscous fluid within the framework of Lyra geometry with time-dependent displacement vector. It is shown that the field equations are solvable for any arbitrary function of a scale factor. To get the deterministic model of the universe, we have assumed that (i) a simple power-law form of a scale factor and (ii) the bulk viscosity coefficient are proportional to the energy density of the matter. The exact solutions of the Einstein’s field equations are obtained which represent an expanding, shearing, and decelerating model of the universe. Some physical and kinematical behaviors of the cosmological model are briefly discussed. 1. Introduction After Einstein (1916) proposed his theory of general relativity which provided a geometrical description of gravitation, many physicists attempted to generalize the idea of geometrizing the gravitation to include a geometrical description of electromagnetism. One of the first attempts was made by Weyl [1] who proposed a more general theory by formulating a new kind of gauge theory involving metric tensor to geometrize gravitation and electromagnetism. But Weyl theory was criticized due to the nonintegrability of length of vector under parallel displacement. Later, Lyra [2] suggested a modification of Riemannian geometry by introducing a gauge function into the structureless manifold which removed the nonintegrability condition. This modified geometry is known as Lyra geometry. Subsequently, Sen [3] formulated a new scalar-tensor theory of gravitation and constructed an analogue of the Einstein’s field equations based on Lyra geometry. He investigated that the static model with finite density in Lyra manifold is similar to the static model in Einstein’s general relativity. Halford [4] has shown that the constant displacement vector field in Lyra geometry plays the role of cosmological constant in general relativity. He has also shown that the scalar-tensor treatment based in Lyra geometry predicts the same effects, within observational limits, as in Einstein’s theory (Halford, [5]). Soleng [6] has investigated cosmological models based on Lyra geometry and has shown that the constant gauge vector field either includes a creation field and be identical to Hoyle’s creation cosmology (Hoyle, [7], Hoyle, and Narlikar [8, 9]) or contains a special vacuum field which together with the gauge vector term may be considered as a cosmological term. In the latter case, solutions are identical to the general relativistic cosmologies with

Abstract:
We study the source characteristics and the associated coseismic stress change of the January 11, 1997 Michoacán earthquake, based on teleseismic, regional and near-source recordings. This event was located just beneath the ruptured zone of the 1985 Michoacán thrust event. From the inversion of teleseismic recordings, we obtain a nearly-vertical faulting at 35 km depth, a total source duration of 15 sec, a moment magnitude of Mw=7.1, and a mean rupture velocity of 2.8 km/sec. An analysis of teleseismic and local seismograms shows that the rupture had a strong directivity to the southeast, with a rather complex source-time function with two main subevents and a total duration of 13 sec. The dislocation distribution obtained from 2D kinematic linear inversion, using both local strong motion and broad-band teleseismic data, shows a complex rupture pattern with the main seismic moment release occurring in the southwest portion of the fault. A comparison between the coseismic Coulomb failure stress change during the main shock, and the location and mechanism of the aftershocks, suggests that post-event seismicity may have been triggered by the stress changes due to the main event.

Abstract:
Three patients of Hansen′s disease, presenting with hyperpigmented macules, instead of the usual hypopigmented of erythematous lesions, are reported.