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Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. leaves
Umamaheswari A,Nuni A,Shreevidya R
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Family: Nyctaginaceae) leaves. The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of B. diffusa L. leaves were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It was observed that ethanol, methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and aqueous extracts showed activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The ethanol extract of B. diffusa L. leaves showed more activity against Gram-positive (e.g. S. aureus, zone of diameter 11 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli, zone of diameter 9 mm) when compared to other solvent extracts except V. cholerae. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial activity of B. diffusa L. leaves extract against various human pathogenic bacteria.
ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ON SALE OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS
Mahesh T S,Sudheer M,Shreevidya M,Ravi Rao S
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: In India, there are more than 700 Ayurvedic hospitals with more than 35,000 beds and 435,000 Ayurvedic physicians. This makes treatments and product prescriptions more readily accessible and widespread acceptance of Ayurveda. The retail value of the Ayurvedic products market in India is estimated to be around $1.2 billion (2005 figures) and is expected to reach $2.6 billion by 2012.The products of Ayurvedic medicine were not produced commercially earlier. The physician himself used to find the raw material and prepare the medicine by himself or under his supervision. But, due to change in lifestyles, and scarcity of raw materials, the physician was unable to fulfill the rising demand. Thus, commercial production of Ayurvedic medicines started in recent decades. As the Ayurvedic drug industry deals mainly with those of herbal, mineral, animal or their combination drugs, the quality of the raw material and in turn the quality of the products play a very important role in marketing when compared to the other three elements of marketing mix. Thus, to determine the influence of marketing, its concepts on the sale of Ayurvedic drugs the study is undertaken.
Corynebacterium macginleyi` a rare bacteria causing infection in an immunocompromised patient
Dias Meena,Shreevidya K,Rao Suresh,Shet Dinesh
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics , 2010,
Abstract: Corynebacterium species are normal flora of skin and mucous membrane. In recent years, coryneforms have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Majority of the Corynebacterium macginleyi isolates are from conjunctiva and cornea. The only reported non ocular isolates are from urinary tract infection, intra-venous catheter related infection, valvular endocarditis and septicaemia. We report herein a rare case of C. macginleyi isolated from tracheostomy site secretions in a patient with carcinoma larynx which was treated successfully with Cefoperazone-sulbactum for seven days and replacing tracheostomy tube. This is the first case of C. macginleyi reported from India.
Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP) for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
R. Prema, R. Rangarajan
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.45019
Abstract: Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.
Studies on Dissolution Behaviour of Nanoparticulate Curcumin Formulation  [PDF]
R. Ravichandran
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.21010
Abstract:

Curcumin is the main biologically active phytochemical compound of turmeric that has been widely used by ancient cultures throughout Asia. However the dissolution rate limited absorption and pre-absorption degradation limits its use as a potential therapeutic. In this study an attempt has been made to overcome the above limitations by curcumin delivery through nanotechnology. Nanocurcumin solid dosage formulations were prepared and studied for its dissolution behaviour. Considerable improvement in the dissolution behavior was observed in the drug nanocrystal-loaded solid dosage forms. This is expected to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble medicinal herbs such as turmeric in the body.

Pharmacokinetic Study of Nanoparticulate Curcumin: Oral Formulation for Enhanced Bioavailability  [PDF]
R. Ravichandran
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43037
Abstract:

Curcumin, a bioactive component of turmeric, which is a commonly used spice and nutritional supplement, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). In recent years, the potential pharmacological actions of Curcumin in inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and neurological disorders have been shown. However, the clinical application of Curcumin is severely limited by its main drawbacks such as instability, low solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Multifarious nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for Curcumin including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, nanoemulsions, complexes and dendrimer/dimer, have been attempted to enhance the oral bioavailability, biological activity or tissue-targeting ability of Curcumin. We attempted the nanosuspensions based delivery of curcumin. Nanonisation renders curcumin completely dispersible in aqueous media. To enhance the curcumin absorption by oral administration, nanoparticulate solid oral formulation of curcumin was prepared by us and the resulting capsule was then examined for its efficiency on bioavailability in Male Wistar rats at a dose of 100 mg curcumin/kg body weight and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those of normal curcumin powder and a commercial curcumin capsule CUR-500. The bio-distribution of curcumin in organs of rat was also studied. Nanoparticulation significantly raised the curcumin concentration in selective organs in the body. The results obtained provide promising results for nanoparticulate Curcumin to improve its biological activities. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the form of nanoparticle is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease. The available information also strongly suggests that nano-formulation of ingredients such as curcumin may be used as a novel nutrient delivery system too.

The Arithmetic Mean Standard Deviation Distribution: A Geometrical Framework  [PDF]
R. Caimmi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.411A4001
Abstract:

The current attempt is aimed to outline the geometrical framework of a well known statistical problem, concerning the explicit expression of the arithmetic mean standard deviation distribution. To this respect, after a short exposition, three steps are performed as 1) formulation of the arithmetic mean standard deviation, \"\", as a function of the errors, \"\", which, by themselves, are statistically independent; 2) formulation of the arithmetic mean standard deviation distribution, \"\", as a function of the errors, \"\"; 3) formulation of the arithmetic mean standard deviation distribution, \"\", as a function of the arithmetic mean standard deviation, \"\", and the arithmetic mean rms error, \"\". The integration domain can be expressed in canonical form after a change of reference frame in the n-space, which is recognized as an infinitely thin n-cylindrical corona where the symmetry axis coincides with a coordinate axis. Finally, the solution is presented and a number of (well known) related parameters are inferred for sake of completeness.

Optimized Parameter Combinations of Hydraulic Damper Modules  [PDF]
R. Sonnenburg
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2014.43025
Abstract:

This paper is devoted to the problem of finding optimized parameter combinations of automotive damper modules. Different cost functions using the amplitude spectrum of the excitation and the frequency response function of the car model will be investigated and it is shown that for three different arbitrary road excitations there exists a parameter combination of top mount stiffness, piston rod mass and damping constant that provides an optimum for the dynamic wheel load fluctuation. The achieved advantage of the optimized damper module regarding the dynamic wheel load fluctuation compared to a simple damper in a two mass vibration system can reach up to 20 percent.

CSA Discounting: Impacts on Pricing and Risk of Commodity Derivatives  [PDF]
R. Abbate
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2014.33011
Abstract: The global financial crisis of 2007-2008 caused market practitioners to reassess the way in which financial derivative contracts had been priced during the preceding thirty years. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolving practice of pricing and hedging commodity derivative contracts according to the terms of the Credit Support Annex (CSA). Using a series of case studies, we price crude oil swaps and Asian options in the pre-crisis, peak-crisis, post-crisis and recent market environments under two different frameworks: LIBOR discounting and CSA discounting (also referred to in a less general form as “OIS discounting”, which incorporates nearly risk-free interest rates). We also compute the widely used first-order and second-order Greek sensitivities. In each market environment, we shift the forward prices and implied volatilities crude oil and re-compute the trades’ valuation and Greek sensitivities at each incremental increase or decrease in price or implied volatility. Under each discounting framework, we quantify the change in trade valuation and Greek sensitivities that results from switching from LIBOR discounting to CSA discounting. The impact on the valuation and Greek sensitivities of a swap and an Asian option as the result of adopting CSA discounting can be significant under certain market conditions. There is likely to be larger impact on directional portfolios containing transactions that hedge either consumption or production (e.g. end users). Ceteris paribus, the impact on portfolio valuation and risk is likely to be limited for market participants (e.g. banks) with hedged portfolios that contain a large number of offsetting positions. Even though we focus our analysis on crude oil derivative contracts, the results easily extend to other asset classes such as natural gas, refined products, agriculture, metals, etc.
The Weighted Mean Standard Deviation Distribution: A Geometrical Framework  [PDF]
R. Caimmi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.63049
Abstract: The current attempt is aimed to extend previous results, concerning the explicit expression of the arithmetic mean standard deviation distribution, to the general case of the weighted mean standard deviation distribution. To this respect, the integration domain is expressed in canonical form after a change of reference frame in the n-space, which is recognized as an infinitely thin n-cylindrical corona where the axis coincides with a coordinate axis and the orthogonal section is an infinitely thin, homotetic (n-1)-elliptical corona. The semiaxes are formulated in two different ways, namely in terms of (1) eigenvalues, via the eigenvalue equation, and (2) leading principal minors of the matrix of a quadratic form, via the Jacobi formulae. The distribution and related parameters have the same formal expression with respect to their counterparts in the special case where the weighted mean coincides with the arithmetic mean. The reduction of some results to ordinary geometry is also considered.
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