In a translucent network scenario, development of an optical control plane (OCP) that is aware of the location and number of available regenerators and all-optical wavelength converters (AOWCs) is of paramount importance. However, current generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) protocol suite does not consider the distribution of regenerator and AOWC availability information to all the network nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel optical control plane (OCP) architecture that 1) disseminates information about network components (i.e. regenerators and AOWCs) to all the network nodes, and 2) evaluates candidate routes which use fewest amounts of network components. Performance of the proposed OCP is compared with a recently proposed hybrid OCP approach in terms of blocking performance, number of deployed components and lightpath establishment setup times. The obtained simulation results show that the proposed OCP approach demonstrates low connection blocking and establishes lightpaths by 1) minimizing the overall network cost owing to the deployment of minimum total number of network components, and 2) demonstrating acceptable lightpath establishment setup times at all traffic loads. Further, the proposed OCP methodology is compatible and suitable for controlling the operations of a novel electro-optical hybrid translucent node which is a latency efficient technology capable of delivering a cost effective implementation suitable for large scale deployment.
The Network Layer in wireless mesh networks is responsible for
routing packets making it a prime target for intruders and hackers. Black-hole
attack is a type of denial-of-service attack which when carried out can disrupt
the services of this layer. This paper takes a look at some important detection
and mitigation techniques and presents the drawbacks. After analysis of current
mechanisms, the paper proposes RID-AODV, a security solution for multiple
black-hole attack in wireless mesh networks. Based on the backbone of AODV,
RID-AODV combines the ability of route skipping of IDSAODV and route failure
correction using reverse route establishment of RAODV. The enhanced protocol
RID-AODV, AODV, IDSAODV, and RAODV are implemented in a simulated
environment using ns-2.35 simulator. The networks for each protocol are
bombarded with up to ten black-hole nodes starting from zero. The results
obtained are then analyzed and compared and a discussion is presented.