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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2640 matches for " Shougang Zhuang "
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Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy
Jinhua Tang,Haidong Yan,Shougang Zhuang
International Journal of Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/608397
Abstract: Obesity-related glomerulopathy is an increasing cause of end-stage renal disease. Obesity has been considered a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and chronic oxidative stress. Augmented inflammation in adipose and kidney tissues promotes the progression of kidney damage in obesity. Adipose tissue, which is accumulated in obesity, is a key endocrine organ that produces multiple biologically active molecules, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, that affect inflammation, and subsequent deregulation of cell function in renal glomeruli that leads to pathological changes. Oxidative stress is also associated with obesity-related renal diseases and may trigger the initiation or progression of renal damage in obesity. In this paper, we focus on inflammation and oxidative stress in the progression of obesity-related glomerulopathy and possible interventions to prevent kidney injury in obesity. 1. Introduction Obesity has become a heavy public health problem in the United States, with a prevalence among adults increasing to 32% from 13% between the 1960s and 2004 [1]. Currently, 66% of adults and 16% of children and adolescents are overweight or obese [1]. Although obesity has long been recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, newer research points to obesity as an important risk factor for chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) [2–4]. In 1974, Weisinger et al. [5] firstly reported that massive obese patients developed nephrotic-range proteinuria. Subsequent studies confirmed that obesity could induce renal injury, namely, obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) [6–8]. A large-scale clinicopathologic study including 6818 renal biopsies from 1986 to 2000 revealed a progressive increase in biopsy incidence of ORG from 0.2% in 1986–1990 to 2.0% in 1996–2000 [8]. The tenfold increase in incidence of ORG over 15 years suggests a newly emerging epidemic [8]. The clinical characteristics of subjects with ORG typically manifest with nephrotic or subnephrotic proteinuria, accompanied by renal insufficiency [8–10]. Histologically, ORG presents as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and glomerular hypertrophy or glomerular hypertrophy alone and relatively decreased podocyte density and number and mild foot process fusion [8, 11, 12]. Clinically, it is distinguished from idiopathic FSGS (I-FSGS) by its lower incidence of nephrotic syndrome, more benign course, and slower progression of proteinuria and renal failure [8, 11]. ORG is an increasing cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The pathophysiology of ORG
Suramin Alleviates Glomerular Injury and Inflammation in the Remnant Kidney
Na Liu, Song He, Evelyn Tolbert, Rujun Gong, George Bayliss, Shougang Zhuang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036194
Abstract: Background Recently, we demonstrated that suramin, a compound that inhibits the interaction of multiple cytokines/growth factors with their receptors, inhibits activation and proliferation of renal interstitial fibroblasts, and attenuates the development of renal interstitial fibrosis in the murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). However, it remains unclear whether suramin can alleviate glomerular and vascular lesions, which are not typical pathological changes in the UUO model. So we tested the efficacy of suramin in the remnant kidney after 5/6 nephrectomy, a model characterized by the slow development of glomerulosclerosis, vascular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and renal inflammation, mimicking human disease. Methods/Findings 5/6 of normal renal mass was surgically ablated in male rats. On the second week after surgery, rats were randomly divided into suramin treatment and non-treatment groups. Suramin was given at 10 mg/kg once per week for two weeks. In the remnant kidney of mice receiving suramin, glomerulosclerosis and vascular sclerosis as well as inflammation were ameliorated. Suramin also attenuated tubular expression of two chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and regulated upon expression normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). After renal mass ablation, several intracellular molecules associated with renal fibrosis, including NF-kappaB p65, Smad-3, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, are phosphorylated; suramin treatment inhibited their phosphorylation. Futhermore, suramin abolished renal ablation-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and platelet derived growth factor receptor, two receptors that mediate renal fibrosis. Conclusions and Significance These findings suggest that suramin attenuates glomerular and vascular injury and reduces inflammatory responses by suppression of multiple growth factor receptor-mediated profibrotic signaling pathways. Therefore, suramin may be a useful drug in preventing the fibrosis and sclerosis that characterizes progression of chronic kidney disease.
Blocking the Class I Histone Deacetylase Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis and Inhibits Renal Fibroblast Activation via Modulating TGF-Beta and EGFR Signaling
Na Liu, Song He, Li Ma, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Jinhua Tang, Evelyn Tolbert, George Bayliss, Ting C. Zhao, Haidong Yan, Shougang Zhuang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054001
Abstract: Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising anti-fibrosis drugs; however, nonselective inhibition of class I and class II HDACs does not allow a detailed elucidation of the individual HDAC functions in renal fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of MS-275, a selective class I HDAC inhibitor, on the development of renal fibrosis in a murine model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and activation of cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts. Methods/Findings The UUO model was established by ligation of the left ureter and the contralateral kidney was used as a control. At seven days after UUO injury, kidney developed fibrosis as indicated by deposition of collagen fibrils and increased expression of collagen I, fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). Administration of MS-275 inhibited all these fibrotic responses and suppressed UUO-induced production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta), increased expression of TGF-beta receptor I, and phosphorylation of Smad-3. MS-275 was also effective in suppressing phosphorylation and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling molecule, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Moreover, class I HDAC inhibition reduced the number of renal tubular cells arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, a cellular event associated with TGF-beta1overproduction. In cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts, MS-275 treatment inhibited TGF-beta induced phosphorylation of Smad-3, differentiation of renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and proliferation of myofibroblasts. Conclusions and Significance These results demonstrate that class I HDACs are critically involved in renal fibrogenesis and renal fibroblast activation through modulating TGF-beta and EGFR signaling and suggest that blockade of class I HDAC may be a useful treatment for renal fibrosis.
Stability Analysis and Evaluation of Jointless Track Based on Ballast Surface Parameters  [PDF]
Hu Zhang, Shougang Huang, Yun Yang, Ran Meng
Engineering (ENG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2018.105016
Abstract: In formulas that use the probabilistic method to calculate the stability of the CWR, the value of the cross-resistance of the track beds hasn’t fully taken into account the influence of the type of the parameter combination of the track bed, making the calculation results for a particular line undifferentiated. The analogy of the trajectory of the lateral displacement of the trackless bed is proposed. It is proposed that the lateral resistance of the track bed is also ambiguous within the allowable lateral displacement limit, and equivalent randomization is performed. Through the analysis of the characteristics of the appearance parameters of the track bed, a calculation formula containing multiple surface parameters for the lateral resistance of the track bed was established, and the values of various factors were reasonably analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to point out that in the stability evaluation formula, the value of the lateral parameters of the ballast bed lacks the consideration of the surface parameters. Based on the surface parameters, a model to evaluate the lateral resistance of the track bed is proposed. It can be seen as a refinement of the formula.
Option Pricing Model with Stochastic Exercise Price
Yunfeng YANG,Shougang ZHANG,Xiaogang XIA
Progress in Applied Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.3968/j.pam.1925252820130501.985
Abstract: This paper discusses the problem of pricing on some multi-asset option European exchange option in jump-diffusion model by martingale method. Supposing that risk assets pay continuous dividend regarded as the function of time. By changing basic assumption of William Margrabe exchange option pricing model to the assumption that jump process is count process that more general than Poisson process. It is established that the behavior model of the stock pricing process is jump-diffusion process. With risk-neutral martingale measure, pricing formula and put-call parity of European exchange options with continuous dividends are obtained by stochastic analysis method. The results of Margrabe are generalized.
Novel Finite Difference Discretization of Interface Boundary Conditions for Stablized Explicit-Implicit Domain Decomposition Methods  [PDF]
Yu Zhuang
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.26047
Abstract:

Stabilized explicit-implicit domain decomposition is a group of methods for solving time-dependent partial difference equations of the parabolic type on parallel computers. They are efficient, stable, and highly parallel, but suffer from a restriction that the interface boundaries must not intersect inside the domain. Various techniques have been proposed to handle this restriction. In this paper, we present finite difference schemes for discretizing the equation spatially, which is of high simplicity, easy to implement, attains second-order spatial accuracy, and allows interface boundaries to intersect inside the domain. 

Chemical Castration: International Experience and Chinese Path to Control Pedophilia Crimes  [PDF]
Jin Zhuang
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.88034
Abstract: The current penalties in China are not sufficient to effectively curb pedophilia. Chemical castration is not the corporal punishment in real sense but indicates reducing the medical treatment of the criminal’s lust by injecting anti-androgen drugs without causing perpetual harm to the criminal’s body. It includes many aspects such as penalty execution procedure & object, treatment position, and penalty execution replacement & guarantee, etc. There are characteristic regulations on it in many states of America. The drastic argument on issues including the constitutionality, fairness, effectiveness and economy of the penalty is held in the American academic circle. Chemical castration has remarkable effect in urging catamite crime, which is worth of referring to for Chinese criminal law. However, it is necessary to take precaution against the limitation in design of the specific system.
An analysis of soil composition and mechanical properties of riverbanks in a braided reach of the Lower Yellow River
JunQiang Xia,BaoSheng Wu,YanPing Wang,ShouGang Zhao
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-008-0282-9
Abstract: The channel adjustment in a braided reach is very prominent in the fluvial processes of the Lower Yellow River, in which the process of bank erosion plays an important role, especially during the period of clear water scouring. The process of bank erosion is closely related to soil composition and mechanical properties of the riverbanks. In this paper, the recent bank erosion process in a braided reach between Huayuankou and Gaocun was firstly investigated after the water impoundment and sediment detention of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, and then a field observation and indoor soil tests were conducted at 10 typical riverbanks in the braided reach. Through analyzing the experimental results, changes of riverbank-soil composition and mechanical properties were found, and the two real reasons causing serious bank erosion in the braided reach were identified. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (i) the majority of riverbanks are made up of cohesive soil, and can be characterized by obvious vertical stratification structures of soil composition; (ii) these riverbanks are very erodible due to the lower clay-content and weak erosion-resistant strength in the bank soil, with its critical shear stress value (0.1–0.3 Pa) being much less than that of the average near-bank flow shear stress (2.0–3.0 Pa), which is one important reason causing serious bank erosion; (iii) frequent occurrence of bank failure during flood seasons usually results from the fact that the values of shear strength parameters such as the cohesion and internal friction angle decrease with the increase of water content in riverbank soil, and the value of cohesion reduces drastically from 34 to 4 kPa with the increase of water content, which is another important reason causing serious bank erosion in the braided reach.
Child Health and Nutrition: Getting better and facing new challenges in China
Shougang Wei,Lirong Ju,Man Li,Wei Wang
Australasian Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: BackgroundChild healthcare practices in China over the last 60 yearshave extensively improved children’s health and growth, yetnew challenges lie ahead. This review aims to summarisethe successful experiences and the newly identifiedproblems in child healthcare in China.MethodInformation, available to the public, was obtained fromChinese databases and Chinese Government websites,chiefly the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructuredatabase, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, theMinistry of Health website and the National WorkingCommittee on Children and Women website.ResultsDuring its poverty-stricken 1950s–1970s, China protectedchildren’s health mainly through prevention and control ofcommon infectious diseases and severe malnutrition withina comprehensive healthcare system. After the subsequent30 years of rapid socio-economic development, China hasachieved great success in reducing childhood mortality ratesand promoting child growth, meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goal 4 targets and the WHO child growthstandards. Meanwhile, new challenges for children’shealthcare emerged, including: large disparities in thehealth, growth and nutritional status of children, and in theaccessibility and quality of child healthcare, between urbanand rural areas and across different regions of China; thenutritional and healthcare concerns of the fast-expandingpopulation of migrant children and rural left-behindchildren; the burgeoning epidemic of childhood obesity inurban and economically developed areas; micronutrientdeficiencies such as calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A; andincreasing prevalence of mental and behavioural disorders.ConclusionUnder poor economic conditions, healthcare plays a keyrole in protecting children against diseases. With thedevelopment of social economy, new challenges present tohealthcare services, specifically, to comprehensivelypromote and optimise childrens’ health and nutrition.
Inverse Problems on Cirtical Number in Finite Groups  [PDF]
Qinghong Wang, Jujuan Zhuang
Open Journal of Discrete Mathematics (OJDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojdm.2013.32018
Abstract:

Let G be a finite nilpotent group of odd order and S be a subset of G\{0}. We say that S is complete if every element of G can be represented as a sum of different elements of S and incomplete otherwise. In this paper, we obtain the characterization of large incomplete sets.

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