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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3392 matches for " Shota Nakamura "
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Role of PIR-B in Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis
Toshiyuki Takai,Akira Nakamura,Shota Endo
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/275302
Abstract: PIR-B, an inhibitory receptor expressed on murine B cells and myeloid cells, regulates humoral and cellular immune responses via its constitutive binding to the ligand, MHC class I molecules, on the same cells (cis) or on different cells (trans). Although it has been speculated that PIR-B is important for maintaining peripheral tolerance, PIR-B single deficiency does not cause overt autoimmune diseases. Recently, however, the combination of its deficiency with the Fas lpr mutation was found to result in augmented production of autoantibodies such as IgG rheumatoid factor and anti-DNA IgG, leading to glomerulonephritis in mice. Although the precise molecular mechanism for the overall scenario is unclear, PIR-B was found to suppress TLR9-mediated production of naturally autoreactive antibodies by innate B cells or B-1 cells by inhibiting the activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase. Thus, PIR-B is an important regulator of innate immunity mediated by TLR9 in B-1 cells, which can otherwise provoke autoimmunity when overactivated.
Isotropic Detectable X-ray Counterparts to Gravitational Waves from Neutron Star Binary Mergers
Shota Kisaka,Kunihito Ioka,Takashi Nakamura
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/809/1/L8
Abstract: Neutron star binary mergers are strong sources of gravitational waves (GWs). Promising electromagnetic counterparts are short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) but the emission is highly collimated. We propose that the scattering of the long-lasting plateau emission in short GRBs by the merger ejecta produces nearly isotropic emission for $\sim 10^4$ s with flux $10^{-13}-10^{-10}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ at 100 Mpc in X-ray. This is detectable by Swift XRT and wide field X-ray detectors such as ISS-Lobster, Einstein Probe, eROSITA and WF-MAXI, which are desired by the infrared and optical follow-ups to localize and measure the distance to the host galaxy. The scattered X-rays obtain linear polarization, which correlates with the jet direction, X-ray luminosity and GW polarizations. The activity of plateau emission is also a natural energy source of a macronova (or kilonova) detected in short GRB 130603B without the $r$-process radioactivity.
Fcγ receptor targeting in RA
Toshiyuki Takai, Akira Nakamura, Akiko Tobinai, Shota Endo, Masanori Inui
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/ar3572
Abstract: IgGFc receptors (FcγRs) were originally identified as B cell surface molecules. For more than 40 years, FcγRs have continued to attract the interest of many basic researchers and clinicians due to their intriguing IgG binding ability, which provides a critical link between the humoral and cellular branches of the immune system.Several activating-type FcγRs, which associate with homodimeric Fc receptor common γ subunits, are crucial for the onset and exacerbation of inflammatory diseases. In contrast, a unique inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIB, plays a critical role in keeping immune cells silent. Murine models for allergic responses and autoimmune diseases including RA illustrate the indispensable roles of activating-type FcγRs and the inhibitory FcγRIIB in the initiation and suppression of inflammation, respectively [1-5].The ultimate goals of FcγR research are to accomplish our understanding of this molecular family and to delineate novel therapeutic strategies toward the conquest of allergic and autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, immunodeficiency, transplantation-associated immune disorders, and malignant tumors. Although many lines of evidence indicate that a part of the intravenous Ig (IVIg)-mediated anti-inflammatory effects can be attributable to the blocking of activating-type FcγRs, recent studies have pointed out an indispensable role of FcγRIIB in therapeutic benefits of IVIg in several murine models of inflammatory diseases including RA [6]. In this session, we will give a brief summary of recent knowledge on antibody biomedicine including IVIgto you, in light of exploiting FcγRs as potential therapeutic targets for various inflammatory diseases, along with the comparison withnon-FcγR-mediated mechanisms of IVIg.
Sequence-Specific and Visual Identification of the Influenza Virus NS Gene by Azobenzene-Tethered Bis-Peptide Nucleic Acid
Kunihiro Kaihatsu, Shinjiro Sawada, Shota Nakamura, Takaaki Nakaya, Teruo Yasunaga, Nobuo Kato
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064017
Abstract: To rapidly and specifically identify highly virulent influenza virus strains, we prepared an azobenzene-tethered hairpin-type peptide nucleic acid, bisPNA-AZO, which has a complementary sequence against a highly conserved genomic RNA sequence within the ribonucleoprotein complex of the 2009 pandemic influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype. bisPNA-AZO recognizes the conserved virus genome sequence in a sequence-specific manner. Immobilization of bisPNA-AZO on a plate allowed capture of the target virus gene and the generation of a visual colour signal.
Gut Microbiota of Healthy and Malnourished Children in Bangladesh
Shirajum Monira,Shota Nakamura,Hubert Ph. Endtz,Alejandro Cravioto,Takaaki Nakaya,Tetsuya Iida
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00228
Abstract: Poor health and malnutrition in preschool children are longstanding problems in Bangladesh. Gut microbiota plays a tremendous role in nutrient absorption and determining the state of health. In this study, metagenomic tool was employed to assess the gut microbiota composition of healthy and malnourished children. DNA was extracted from fecal samples of seven healthy and seven malnourished children (n = 14; age 2–3 years) were analyzed for the variable region of 16S rRNA genes by universal primer PCR followed by high-throughput 454 parallel sequencing to identify the bacterial phyla and genera. Our results reveal that the healthy children had a significantly higher number of operational taxonomic unit in their gut than that of the malnourished children (healthy vs. malnourished: 546 vs. 310). In malnourished children, bacterial population of the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 46 and 18%, respectively. Conversely, in healthy children, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes accounted for 5% and 44, respectively (p < 0.001). In malnourished children, the phylum Proteobacteria included pathogenic genera, namely Klebsiella and Escherichia, which were 174-fold and 9-fold higher, respectively, than their healthy counterpart. The predominance of potentially pathogenic Proteobacteria and minimal level of Bacteroidetes as commensal microbiota might be associated to the ill health of malnourished children in Bangladesh.
Unsteady Behavior of Cavitating Waterjet in an Axisymmetric Convergent-Divergent Nozzle: High Speed Observation and Image Analysis Based on Frame Difference Method  [PDF]
Shota Hayashi, Keiichi Sato
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization (JFCMV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2014.23011
Abstract: Although it is well known that cloud cavitation shows unsteady behavior with the growing motion of an attached cavity, the shedding motion of a cloud, the collapsing motion of the cloud shed downstream and a reentrant motion in flow fields such as on a 2-D hydrofoil and in a convergent- divergent channel with a rectangular cross-section, observations for the periodic behavior of cloud cavitation in a cylindrical nozzle with a convergent-divergent part, which is mainly used in an industrial field, have hardly been conducted. From engineering viewpoints, it is important to elucidate the mechanism of periodic cavitation behavior in a cylindrical nozzle. In this study, a high-speed observation technique with an image analysis technique was applied to the cloud cavitation behavior in the nozzle to make clear the mechanism of unsteady behavior. As a result, it was observed in the nozzle that the periodic behavior occurs in the cloud cavitation and pressure waves form at the collapse of clouds shed downstream. Also, it was found through the image analysis based on the present technique that the pressure wave plays a role as a trigger mechanism to cause a reentrant motion at the downstream end of an attached cavity.
The Promotion Rule under Imperfect Observability of the Employee’s Ability  [PDF]
Shota Araki, Daiji Kawaguchi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.48084
Abstract: This note provides the closed-form solution for the model by Lazear [1]. The employer adjusts the performance standard for promotion when the employer observes only the imperfect index of the employee’s ability. The adjustment margin is larger when the performance depends heavily on luck and depends lightly on the employee’s ability.
Regular Elements of the Complete Semigroups BX(D) of Binary Relations of the Class ∑2(X,8)  [PDF]
Nino Tsinaridze, Shota Makharadze
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.63042
Abstract: As we know if D is a complete X-semilattice of unions then semigroup Bx(D) possesses a right unit iff D is an XI-semilattice of unions. The investigation of those a-idempotent and regular elements of semigroups Bx(D) requires an investigation of XI-subsemilattices of semilattice D for which V(D,a)=Q2(X,8) . Because the semilattice Q of the class ∑2(X,8) are not always XI -semilattices, there is a need of full description for those idempotent and regular elements when V(D,a)=Q . For the case where X is a finite set we derive formulas by calculating the numbers of such regular elements and right units for which V(D,a)=Q .
Method for Evaluating the Influence of Obstruction of Sea Breeze by Clusters of High-Rise Buildings on the Urban Heat Island Effect  [PDF]
Shota Sashiyama, Kayoko Yamamoto
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.511099
Abstract:

This study aims to propose a method for quantitatively evaluating the influence which the obstruction of sea breezes by clusters of high-rise buildings has on the urban heat island effect using a weather simulation model and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Specifically, a method of evaluating the influence of the obstruction of sea breeze by high-rise buildings on the urban heat island effect was proposed. In the method, two scenarios that imagine urban forms which differ with regard to whether or not they contain high-rise buildings are created and weather simulation is conducted, and the results of the simulations are comparatively analyzed focusing on temperature and wind speed. Evaluation was conducted in two stages, and Shiodome of Minato City in the Tokyo Metropolis was selected as the region for evaluation. In two stages of evaluation, a rise in temperature of approximately 0.3 K and a reduction in wind speed of approximately 1 m/s were observed in a region approximately five to ten kilometers square downwind of high-rise buildings in the period 6 PM to 9 PM, and a higher temperature caused by the obstruction of sea breeze by high-rise buildings was identified. The fact that such a higher temperature was confirmed in the time period from 6 PM onwards, in which the temperature decreases, reveals that obstruction of sea breeze by high-rise buildings dulls the decrease in temperature which occurs from evening onwards, and influences nighttime urban heat island formation.

Urgent Problems in Learning the Public Administration (on the Example of Georgia)
Shota Dogonadze
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: Public management can and should be taught. Former Soviet Republics, including Georgia are facing this acute problem. Some attention is directed to management training, but public management stays in the background, although it is evident that major political and economic problems of Georgia and other countries of so-called “fledging democracies” arise due to the government theory neglect. The article considers development of administrative way of thinking starting from political doctrine to managerial approach, prospects for public management principles development, existing educational models. The epoch of classic universities is passing; with the help of textbooks students can only make courseworks. That’s why the use of innovative methods is necessary for students training.
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