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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 101 matches for " Shizuo Komune "
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Antibiotic Treatment for Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Endoscopic Surgery: How Long Should Macrolide Antibiotics Be Given?  [PDF]
Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Daisuke Murakami, Shizuo Komune
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2015.41008
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate period for macrolide antibiotic therapy, and to investigate whether this period could be shorter, for patients with chronicrhino sinusitis (CRS) after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Methods: A retrospective analysis of 41 patients undergoing FESS for CRS was performed. All patients underwent pre-operative computed tomography (CT). Patients with fungal sinusitis, allergic fungal sinusitis, and eosinophilic sinusitis were excluded. After FESS, normalized sinus mucosa was confirmed by CT and endoscopy in all patients. Postoperative antibiotic therapy consisted of first-line and second-line regimens. Garenoxacin (GRNX), or clarithromycin (CAM, 400 mg/day) was used as the first-line regimens and low-dose macrolide therapy (CAM, 200 mg/day) was used as the second-line regimen and was prescribed at outpatient visits based on our clinical criteria. Results: Second-line antibiotic therapy (low-dose CAM) was not necessary in 12 of 41 (29%) patients, while it was prescribed in 29 of 41 (71%). The mean duration of low-dose CAM therapy after FESS was 36 days (range 7 to 122 days; median, 25 days). Patients who received second-line therapy (n = 29) were divided into two groups based on the choice of first-line therapy, a GRNX group (n = 13) and a non-GRNX group (n = 16). Those in the non-GRNX had longer periods of postoperative CAM therapy than those in the GRNX group. Conclusion: GRNX was associated with a shorter duration of low-dose macrolide therapy after FESS, and 29% of patients did not need any low-dose macrolide therapy postoperatively. Therefore, macrolide antibiotics should not be routinely prescribed after FESS.
A Combination of Endoscopic CO2 Laser Microsurgery and Radiotherapy for Treatment of T2N0M0 Glottic Carcinoma  [PDF]
Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Toshiro Umezaki, Takemoto Shin, Shizuo Komune
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2012.12006
Abstract: The aims of this study were to evaluate the results of CO2 laser surgery alone and CO2 laser surgery combined with radiotherapy in patients with T2N0M0 glottic carcinoma. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 35 cases of T2N0M0 glottic carcinoma. Fourteen patients with normal vocal cord mobility were treated with endoscopic CO2 laser surgery alone. The remaining 21 patients were treated with CO2 laser surgery followed by radiotherapy (44 - 70 Gy, including low-dose carboplatin chemoradiotherapy). Main outcome measures were local control, organ preservation, recurrence, 5-year survival, and successful salvage in cases of recurrence. We evaluated the patient’s voice with the psychoacoustics GRBAS scale, maximum phonation time (MPT), and airflow rate (AFR) obtained by aerodynamic tests. Mean follow-up period was 5 years. Among the 35 T2N0M0 patients, 5-year survival and 5-year voice preservation rates were 97% and 89%, respectively. Local recurrence occurred in 7 of these patients (20%); 4 of 7 local recurrences were successfully re-treated by laser surgery. Total laryngectomy was necessary for salvage treatment in the remaining 3 patients. The post-treatment voice qualities were judged to be the same or improved over pretreatment qualities. There was little change in MPT and AFR after treatment in non-recurrence patients. CO2 laser microsurgery is an excellent tool for treating selected cases of T2N0M0 glottic
Overexpression of the Orotate Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Gene Enhances the Effect of 5-Fluorouracil in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vitro
Ryuji Yasumatsu,Torahiko Nakashima,Shizuo Komune
Journal of Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/649605
Abstract: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used drug in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the anabolic pathway of 5-FU, the first step in activation of the drug is phosphorylation of 5-FU by orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), which directly metabolizes 5-FU to 5-fluorouridine monophosphate (FUMP) in the presence of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. To date, OPRT expression in the tumors has been related to the clinical response or survival of cancer patients receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy. In this study, we examined whether OPRT expression correlates with the chemosensitivity to 5-FU and cell proliferation in HNSCC. We constitutively expressed an OPRT cDNA in an HNSCC cell line. The effects of OPRT expression on in vitro cell growth and 5-FU cytotoxicity were examined. OPRT transfection increases the cytotoxicity of 5-FU without affecting cell proliferation of HNSCC cells in vitro. These results indicate that OPRT expression plays an important role in the sensitivity of HNSCC to 5-FU chemotherapy. 1. Introduction 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been used most frequently for treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a form of single agent or in combination with cisplatin [1] and the drug of choice for systemic therapy in colorectal cancer [2]. However, nowadays 5-FU resistance during the course of treatment has become common, which is an important cause of failure for cancer therapies [3]. It has been reported that response rate of 5-FU and its derivatives are due to interindividual difference in the enzyme activities for anabolism and catabolism. In the anabolic pathway of 5-FU, the first step in activation of the drug is phosphorylation of 5-FU by orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), which directly metabolizes 5-FU to 5-fluorouridine monophosphate (FUMP) in the presence of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate [4]. This step is the most important mechanism of 5-FU activation. To date, OPRT expression in the tumors has been related to the clinical response or survival of cancer patients receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy [5, 6]. However, no study has confirmed directly whether the regulation of intratumoral OPRT expression level affects the efficacy of 5-FU and the cell activity in HNSCC. We therefore investigated whether overexpression of the OPRT enhances sensitivity to 5-FU. In this study, to assess the role of OPRT in the biological regulation of HNSCC, we constitutively expressed the OPRT complementary DNA (cDNA) in HNSCC cell line. The effect of OPRT on in vitro cell growth and 5-FU cytotoxicity was examined. 2. Materials
Diagnosis and Management of Extracranial Head and Neck Schwannomas: A Review of 27 Cases
Ryuji Yasumatsu,Torahiko Nakashima,Rina Miyazaki,Yuichi Segawa,Shizuo Komune
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/973045
Abstract: Objectives. Clinical records of 27 patients with extracranial head and neck schwannoma were retrospectively reviewed. Methods. Ultrasonography (US) was performed in all cases. Seven patients underwent CT. Twenty-five patients underwent MRI. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed for 12 of the 27 patients. Clinical history, surgical data, and postoperative morbidity were analyzed. Results. The images of US showed a well-defined, hypoechoic, primarily homogeneous solid mass. At CT, only one of 7 cases (14%) was able to suggest the diagnosis of schwannoma. At MRI, twenty of 25 cases (80%) suggested the diagnosis of schwannoma. Only three of 12 cases (25%) displayed a specific diagnosis of schwannoma rendered on FNAC. The distribution of 27 nerves of origin was 10 (37%) vagus nerves, 6 (22%) sympathetic trunks, 5 (19%) cervical plexuses, 3 (11%) brachial plexuses, 2 (7%) hypoglossal nerves, and 1 (4%) accessory nerve. Complete tumor resection was performed in 11 patients, and intracapsular enucleation of the tumor was performed in 16 patients. The rate of nerve palsy was 100 (11/11) and 31% (5/16). Conclusions. MRI is sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of schwannoma. Intracapsular enucleation was an effective and feasible method for preserving the neurological functions. 1. Introduction Schwannoma is a benign neural sheath tumor, and it occurs in overall body areas including the head and neck region. As a slowly growing benign tumor, it has been reported that 25 to 45% of schwannomas were located in the extracranial head and neck region [1]. It involves the cranial nerves such as V, VII, X, XI, and XII or sympathetic and peripheral nerves [2]. Preoperative diagnostic investigations included ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) [3–5]. However, the preoperative diagnosis of schwannoma is difficult and should be suggested by clinical features and supported by investigations. As for the management of schwannomas, multiple treatment options exist including observation, complete tumor excision, and intracapsular enucleation [6, 7]. For tumors arising from the major cranial nerves, complete tumor resection renders lifelong morbidity to the patients. On the other hand, the nerve-preserving excision method, such as intracapsular enucleation, does not guarantee intact nerve function after surgery. Because of the substantial chance of nerve palsy after operation, obtaining an accurate preoperative diagnosis, and preferably, with the identification of the nerve of
Interferon Inducible IFI16 Expression in p16 Positive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx
Moriyasu Yamauchi,Takafumi Nakano,Torahiko Nakashima,Ryuji Yasumatsu,Kazuki Hashimoto,Satoshi Toh,Hideki Shiratsuchi,Yoshinao Oda,Shizuo Komune
ISRN Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/263271
Abstract: Human-papillomavirus- (HPV-) positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) are reported to be more responsive to treatment and to be related to a favorable prognosis compared with non-HPV carcinomas. However, the molecular basis of the responsiveness is unclear. Interferon inducible IFI16, which is implicated in the control of cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation in various types of cancers, is reported to be frequently expressed in the HPV-positive head and neck SCC and to correlate with a better prognosis. In this study, we hypothesized that HPV related OPSCC expresses IFI16 resulting in favorable prognosis. To clarify the relationship between the prognosis of HPV related OPSCC patients and IFI16 status, we examined immunohistologically the pretreatment specimens of OPSCC for the expression of p16 as a surrogate marker of HPV infection and IFI16. We could not show that the expression of IFI16 is associated with that of p16. There was no significant difference in the survival rate between IFI16 positive and negative groups. Patients with p16 negative tumor exhibited worse survival rate regardless of IFI16 status. In this limited case series, we could not conclude that IFI16 expression is altered in p16 positive OPSCC and that it would be a new predictive marker or a useful therapeutic tool. 1. Introduction Mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are well known to associate with invasive carcinomas of cervix and anogenital region. Recently, HPV has been found to be etiologically involved in 20% to 25% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), mostly in the oropharynx [1]. HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers are reported to be more responsive to treatment and to show a favorable prognosis compared with non-HPV carcinomas [2]. However, the molecular basis of the responsiveness is unclear. IFI16 is a member of the Interferon- (IFN-) inducible HIN200 gene family which can be induced by IFN stimulation followed by several intracellular signaling cascades. The family includes a group of human (IFI16, IFIX, MNDA, and AIM2) and mouse (Ifi202a, Ifi202b, Ifi203, Ifi204, and D3/Ifi205) genes and they mediate the necessary biological responses [3]. These proteins share a partially conserved repeat of 200 amino acid residues (the HIN-200 domain) towards the C-terminus, which allows these proteins to bind dsDNA. Most p200-family proteins also contain a homotypic protein-protein interaction PYRIN domain (PYD) in the N-terminus [4]. IFI16 is implicated in the control of cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and
Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Effects in Herb Teas  [PDF]
Shizuo Toda
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2011.21005
Abstract: Herb teas, Arabian jasmine, Balsam pear, Barley grass, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Jobs tears, Oolong tea, Puerh tea and Wolofberry have been consumed as beverages for health in Asia. Oxidative stress induces various diseases. Some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese per-simmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. Herbs and herbal polyphenols pay in controlling oxidation and prevent the damage by oxidation. These results showed that some of them, Arabian jasmine, Guava, Hardy rubber tree, Japanese persimmon, Oolong tea and Puerh tea, have high total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. It has been demonstrated that high total polyphenol content in the herb teas provides high antioxidant activities.
Effect of Acupuncture on Carnitine for Skeletal Muscle Fatigue  [PDF]
Shizuo Toda
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2012.31003
Abstract: Skeletal muscle fatigue is a common symptom in various diseases, works and exercises. These were generally induced by neuron, metabolic conditions, overused muscle, and stress. But, there have been few principles about it. Many researchers have reported that acupuncture therapy has been useful to skeletal muscle fatigue on various diseases and conditions. However, it has never been shown why acupuncture therapy has the effect on skeletal muscle fatigue. The deficiency of carnitine induces fatigue, weakness, and disorder of skeletal muscle. It has showed that acupuncture induces the increase of carnitine in skeletal muscle. These findings demonstrated that acupuncture on skeletal muscle fatigue could increase carnitine as a possible affection mechanism.
Investigation of Electroacupuncture and Manual Acupuncture on Carnitine and Glutathione in Muscle
Shizuo Toda
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep071
Abstract: Electroacupuncture (EA) and manual acupuncture (MA) have therapeutic effects on muscle fatigue in muscle disease. The deficiencies of carnitine and glutathione induce muscle fatigue. This report investigated the effects of EA and MA on carnitine and glutathione in muscle. After the mice of EA group were fixed in the animal cage, right Zusanli (ST36) and Jiexi (ST41) were acupunctured and stimulated with uniform reinforcing and reducing method by twirling the acupuncture needle for 15 min. And then, the needle handles were connected to an electric stimulator for stimulating the acupoint with dense-sparse waves. After the mice of MA group were fixed in an animal cage, right ST36 and ST41 were acupunctured and allowed for 15 min. The mice of normal control group were not acupunctured and stimulated for 15 min. The mice of all groups were killed for collecting muscle tissue 1 h after the final treatment. Carnitine and glutathione in homogenate of muscle tissue were determined with carnitine (Kainos Laboratories Co., Tokyo, Japan) and glutathione assay kit (Dojin Chemicals Co., Kumamoto, Japan). Carnitine level in muscle tissue of MA group was significantly higher than those of EA group and normal control group. Carnitine level in muscle tissue of EA group was not significantly different from that of normal control group. Glutathione levels in muscle tissue of EA group and MA group were significantly higher than that of normal control group. This report presented that carnitine in muscle is increased by MA, and not increased by EA, and that glutathione in muscle is increased by EA and MA.
The role of mRNA degradation in immunity and inflammation
Shizuo Akira
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/ar3562
Abstract: We are now focusing on the role of genes induced in response to TLR stimulation, particularly the genes that are rapidly induced in a MyD88-dependent manner within 30 min after LPS stimulation. Among them, we have recently identified a novel gene named Zc3h12a which has a CCCH-type zinc finger domain. The knockout mice developed spontaneous autoimmune diseases accompanied by splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Subsequent studies showed that Zc3h12a is a nuclease involved in destabilization of IL-6 and IL-12mRNA. We renamed it Regulatory RNase-1 (Regnase-1) based on the function.We recently found that the IKK complex controls Il6 mRNA stability by phosphorylating Regnase-1 in response to IL-1R/TLR stimulation. Phosphorylated Regnase-1 underwent ubiquitination and degradation. Regnase-1 re-expressed in IL-1R/TLR-activated cells exhibited delayed kinetics, and Regnase-1 mRNA was found to be negatively regulated by Regnase-1 itself via a stem-loop region present in the Regnase-1 3' untranslated region. These data demonstrate that the IKK complex phosphorylates not only IkBalpha, activating transcription, but also Regnase-1, releasing the "brake" on Il6 mRNA expression.
Mod 2 cohomology of 2-local finite groups of low rank
Shizuo Kaji
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We determine the mod 2 cohomology over the Steenrod algebra of the classifying space of a free loop group LG for G=Spin(7), Spin(8), Spin(9), F_4, and DI(4). Then we show that it is isomorphic as algebras over the Steenrod algebra to the mod 2 cohomology of the classifying space of a certain 2-local finite group of type G.
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