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Relationship of Uric Acid with Superoxide Dismutase (Sod) in Induced Hyperuricemic Rat Model  [PDF]
Shiza Batool, Iftikhar Ahmed, Muhammad Sarwar, Hafeez ul Hassan
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.34054
Abstract: Increase uric acid levels have been found in oxidative stress. Urate radicals do not react with oxygen to form another peroxy radical, thus increasing the efficacy of uric acid as an antioxidant. Therefore, this study is designed to measure the level of uric acids and find out the relationship of uric acid with superoxide dismutase in induced hyperuricemic model. Forty male albino rats with an average weight of 180 ± 2 g were selected. The rats were grouped. The animals were fed on standard diet and given tap water ad libitum until treatment. Albino rats were divided into four groups. Group A(10)-control given only standard diet, group B(10) fed on 60% fructose with standard diet , group C(10) fed on fructose, standard diet and intraperitonially oxonic acid 250 mg/kg and group D (10) only on injection intraperotonially oxonic acid 250 mg/kg. At the end of study 10 mL of blood was drawn from heart of rats. Then blood was estimated for superoxide dismutase and uric acids done by kit methods randox-manual/Rx monza UA230/UA 233. Results: In Group C superoxide dismutase was found to be 32 % (244 mg/dL ± 2.23) more than control. In the same group the uric acid concentration was highly significantly correlated with control. Conclusion: The uric acid concentration increases when we take fructose up to 60% in our diet. It also increases superoxide dismutase concentration. More than this value may have inverse effect on the uric acid level and its role as an antioxidant may become inversed.
The Educational System Challenges from the Perspective of Modern Technologies  [PDF]
Maryam Safari, Batool Noori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.73033
Abstract: Information and communication technology and the movement from traditional societies to information communities have affected all human dimensions and needs. Educational institutions, including universities and schools, are the largest producer, distributor and storage of information and knowledge and if done, a good effort to properly apply information technology and focus it on the development plan, educational systems will be able to become one of the largest sources of skilled human resource development in information technology and play an important scientific and economic role in the country and global competitions. The most important obstacle to the use of modern educational technologies is economic impediment from the perspective of teachers and managers. After that, the most important barriers were strategic, educational, technical, legal and cultural barriers respectively. Also, the study of the researches between the use of modern educational technologies and students’ educational progress shows that there are many barriers in using information and communication technology that is influenced by the situation and its application fields. Therefore, this research tries to address the barriers to the application of information and communication technology in the educational system.
Situational Determinants of Forgiveness
Batool Ahadi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study examined situational determinants of forgiveness in which disposition to forgive and situational factors were examined as predictors of forgiveness in a specific situation. One hundred and twenty eight undergraduate students (76 males and 52 females) aged between 18 and 28 years (Mean = 22.03, SD = 6.1) took part in the study. Factors that predicted unique variance in forgiveness of a specific offence were the offended party disposition to forgive, the value they placed on the relationship with the transgressor, positive offender actions and expecting the transgressor to repeat the offence. The findings support the idea that interpersonal forgiveness involves the interplay of factors that are both internal and external to individuals.
Relationship Between Mental Health and Job Satisfaction among High School Principals and Teachers in Iran
Batool Ahadi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This research examined the relationship between mental health and job satisfaction among high school principals and teachers in Iran. It was hypothesized that global job satisfaction and its 5 components: Satisfaction with work, co-workers, pay, promotion and supervision have negative correlations with the 9 mental disorders: Somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. The JDI and the SCL-90-R were used to measure overall job satisfaction and its 5 components and the 9 mental disorders, respectively. The sample consisted of 828 subjects selected by a random method; 665 were teachers and 163 were principals. Results indicated that global job satisfaction and its 5 components have negative correlations with the 9 mental disorders at p<0.01 level of significance. Only 8 correlation coefficients out of 108 did not reach statistical significance at p<0.05 level. The multiple correlation coefficients of the 5 job satisfaction facets and the nine mental disorders have a range from 0.17-0.38 for teachers and from 0.34-0.45 for principals. All these multiple correlation coefficients were significant at p<0.01.
Hyposkillia and Critical Thinking: Lost Skills of Doctors
Tayyaba Batool
APSP Journal of Case Reports , 2010,
Abstract: Imperforate hymen is the most frequent obstructive anomaly of the female genital tract. It can be diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound as bladder outlet obstruction, due to hydrocolpos or mucocolpos and postnatally on physical examination of the perineum and abdomen. No additional tests or investigative tools are required for diagnosis per se. We share our experience of two index cases of imperforate hymen where clinical diagnosis was missed.
Familial Costs of Chemical Warfare
Batool Rashidi
Journal of Family and Reproductive Health , 2008,
Hashtags as Crowdsourcing: A Case Study of Arabic Hashtags on Twitter  [PDF]
Batool Hendal
Social Networking (SN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2019.84011
Abstract: This mixed study aims to highlight the impact of social media in the Arab world, specifically Twitter’s impact on translators’ communities. For this purpose, the role of hashtags among translators will be examined by investigating one particular Arabic hashtag, its purpose, target users, and the classification of content. The hashtag is \"\", #translator_serving_translator. 1) An online survey of six closed questions was employed and posted on Twitter, and 249 responses show that users are from fourteen Arab countries, and the majority is from Saudi Arabia. Hashtag users are translators, freelancers, or TS students. Some are active users who post tweets and answer questions, others only ask questions, and the rest only read tweets. The general attitude toward employing hashtags among translators’ communities was positive. 2) Employing a content analysis approach, the content is classified into two main categories of sharing information and seeking assistance with seven subcategories of each.
A Unified Interpolating Subdivision Scheme for Curves/Surfaces by Using Newton Interpolating Polynomial  [PDF]
Faheem Khan, Irem Mukhtar, Noreen Batool
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.33033

This paper presents a general formula for (2m + 2)-point n-ary interpolating subdivision scheme for curves for any integer m 0 and n 2 by using Newton interpolating polynomial. As a consequence, the proposed work is extended for surface case, which is equivalent to the tensor product of above proposed curve case. These formulas merge several notorious curve/surface schemes. Furthermore, visual performance of the subdivision schemes is also presented.  

Construction and Application of Subdivision Surface Scheme Using Lagrange Interpolation Polynomial  [PDF]
Faheem Khan, Noreen Batool, Iram Mukhtar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.53040

This paper offers a general formula for surface subdivision rules for quad meshes by using 2-D Lagrange interpolating polynomial [1]. We also see that the result obtained is equivalent to the tensor product of (2N + 4)-point n-ary interpolating curve scheme for N ≥ 0 and n ≥ 2. The simple interpolatory subdivision scheme for quadrilateral nets with arbitrary topology is presented by L. Kobbelt [2], which can be directly calculated from the proposed formula. Furthermore, some characteristics and applications of the proposed work are also discussed.

Perception of Menopausal Symptoms among Educated versus Non Educated Women by Using Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS)  [PDF]
Syeda Fakhar Batool, Yasmeen Saggu, Mansoor Ghani
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.48063

Background: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted in a well populated city named Rawalpindi, which is located in the Northern part of Pakistan. Objectives: This study was aimed to document the comparison of menopausal-related symptoms among educated and non educated women of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: MRS was used to measure the intensity of menopausal symptoms. 100 educated and 100 uneducated women were selected for study purpose. Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital were selected as a study setting. Findings: Correlation & Fisher exact test was applied for statistical analysis. The intensity of symptoms reported by Educated women as: sleeping problems (93.0%); heart discomfort (80.0%); hot flushes and sweating (70.0%); joint and muscular pain (52.0); depressive mood (63.0%); irritability (42%); anxiety (60.0%). physical and mental exhaustion; (48.0%); sexual problem (61.0%); dryness of vagina (57.0%); and bladder problem (65.0%). The severity of symptoms in uneducated women; sleeping problems (77.0%); heart discomfort (73.0%); hot flushes (69.0%); joint and muscular pain (66.0); depressive mood (71.0%); irritability (58%); anxiety (80.0%). physical and mental exhaustion (70.0%); sexual problem (66.0%); dryness of vagina (70.0%); and bladder problem (83.0%). Conclusions: Somatic symptoms were high in educated women as compare to uneducated women while the prevalence of psychological and Urogenital symptoms were high in uneducated women as compare to educated women.

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