Abstract:
Legendre's conjecture states that there is a prime number between n^2 and (n+1)^2 for every positive integer n. We consider the following question : for all integer n>1 and a fixed integer k<=n does there exist a prime number such that kn < p < (k+1)n ? Bertrand-Chebyshev theorem answers this question affirmatively for k=1. A positive answer for k=n would prove Legendre's conjecture. In this paper, we show that one can determine explicitly a number N(k) such that for all n >= N(k), there is at least one prime between kn and (k+1)n. Our proof is based on Erdos's proof of Bertrand-Chebyshev theorem and uses elementary combinatorial techniques without appealing to the prime number theorem.

Abstract:
Thomas proved that every undirected graph admits a linked tree decomposition of width equal to its treewidth. In this paper, we generalize Thomas's theorem to digraphs. We prove that every digraph G admits a linked directed path decomposition and a linked DAG decomposition of width equal to its directed pathwidth and DAG-width respectively.

Abstract:
One of the most fundamental problems in large scale network analysis is to determine the importance of a particular node in a network. Betweenness centrality is the most widely used metric to measure the importance of a node in a network. In this paper, we present a randomized parallel algorithm and an algebraic method for computing betweenness centrality of all nodes in a network. We prove that any path-comparison based algorithm cannot compute betweenness in less than O(nm) time.

Abstract:
A celebrated theorem of Savitch states that NSPACE(S) is contained in DSPACE(S^2). In particular, Savitch gave a deterministic algorithm to solve ST-CONNECTIVITY (an NL-complete problem) using O(log^2{n}) space, implying NL is in DSPACE(log^2{n}). While Savitch's theorem itself has not been improved in the last four decades, studying the space complexity of several special cases of ST-CONNECTIVITY has provided new insights into the space-bounded complexity classes. In this paper, we introduce new kind of graph connectivity problems which we call graph realizability problems. All of our graph realizability problems are generalizations of UNDIRECTED ST-CONNECTIVITY. ST-REALIZABILITY, the most general graph realizability problem, is LogCFL-complete. We define the corresponding complexity classes that lie between L and LogCFL and study their relationships. As special cases of our graph realizability problems we define two natural problems, BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY and POSITIVE BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY, that lie between L and NL. We present a deterministic O(lognloglogn) space algorithm for BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY. More generally we prove that SGSLogCFL, a generalization of BALANCED ST-CONNECTIVITY, is contained in DSPACE(lognloglogn). To achieve this goal we generalize several concepts (such as graph squaring and transitive closure) and algorithms (such as parallel algorithms) known in the context of UNDIRECTED ST-CONNECTIVITY.

Abstract:
Scarf's lemma is one of the fundamental results in combinatorics, originally introduced to study the core of an N-person game. Over the last four decades, the usefulness of Scarf's lemma has been demonstrated in several important combinatorial problems seeking "stable" solutions. However, the complexity of the computational version of Scarf's lemma (SCARF) remained open. In this paper, we prove that SCARF is complete for the complexity class PPAD. This proves that SCARF is as hard as the computational versions of Brouwer's fixed point theorem and Sperner's lemma. Hence, there is no polynomial-time algorithm for SCARF unless PPAD \subseteq P. We also show that fractional stable paths problem and finding strong fractional kernels in digraphs are PPAD-hard.

Abstract:
Partial 1-trees are undirected graphs of treewidth at most one. Similarly, partial 1-DAGs are directed graphs of KellyWidth at most two. It is well-known that an undirected graph is a partial 1-tree if and only if it has no K_3 minor. In this paper, we generalize this characterization to partial 1-DAGs. We show that partial 1-DAGs are characterized by three forbidden directed minors, K_3, N_4 and M_5.

Abstract:
Several problems that are NP-hard on general graphs are efficiently solvable on graphs with bounded treewidth. Efforts have been made to generalize treewidth and the related notion of pathwidth to digraphs. Directed treewidth, DAG-width and Kelly-width are some such notions which generalize treewidth, whereas directed pathwidth generalizes pathwidth. Each of these digraph width measures have an associated decomposition structure. In this paper, we present approximation algorithms for all these digraph width parameters. In particular, we give an O(sqrt{logn})-approximation algorithm for directed treewidth, and an O({\log}^{3/2}{n})-approximation algorithm for directed pathwidth, DAG-width and Kelly-width. Our algorithms construct the corresponding decompositions whose widths are within the above mentioned approximation factors.

Abstract:
Consider the following problem. A seller has infinite copies of $n$ products represented by nodes in a graph. There are $m$ consumers, each has a budget and wants to buy two products. Consumers are represented by weighted edges. Given the prices of products, each consumer will buy both products she wants, at the given price, if she can afford to. Our objective is to help the seller price the products to maximize her profit. This problem is called {\em graph vertex pricing} ({\sf GVP}) problem and has resisted several recent attempts despite its current simple solution. This motivates the study of this problem on special classes of graphs. In this paper, we study this problem on a large class of graphs such as graphs with bounded treewidth, bounded genus and $k$-partite graphs. We show that there exists an {\sf FPTAS} for {\sf GVP} on graphs with bounded treewidth. This result is also extended to an {\sf FPTAS} for the more general {\em single-minded pricing} problem. On bounded genus graphs we present a {\sf PTAS} and show that {\sf GVP} is {\sf NP}-hard even on planar graphs. We study the Sherali-Adams hierarchy applied to a natural Integer Program formulation that $(1+\epsilon)$-approximates the optimal solution of {\sf GVP}. Sherali-Adams hierarchy has gained much interest recently as a possible approach to develop new approximation algorithms. We show that, when the input graph has bounded treewidth or bounded genus, applying a constant number of rounds of Sherali-Adams hierarchy makes the integrality gap of this natural {\sf LP} arbitrarily small, thus giving a $(1+\epsilon)$-approximate solution to the original {\sf GVP} instance. On $k$-partite graphs, we present a constant-factor approximation algorithm. We further improve the approximation factors for paths, cycles and graphs with degree at most three.