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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 469 matches for " Shingo Kajimura "
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Regulation of Early Adipose Commitment by Zfp521
Sona Kang,Peter Akerblad,Riku Kiviranta,Rana K. Gupta,Shingo Kajimura,Michael J. Griffin,Jie Min,Roland Baron,Evan D. Rosen
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001433
Abstract: While there has been significant progress in determining the transcriptional cascade involved in terminal adipocyte differentiation, less is known about early events leading to lineage commitment and cell fate choice. It has been recently discovered that zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) is an early actor in adipose determination. Here, we show that a close paralog of Zfp423, Zfp521, acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Zfp521 exerts its actions by binding to early B cell factor 1 (Ebf1), a transcription factor required for the generation of adipocyte progenitors, and inhibiting the expression of Zfp423. Overexpression of Zfp521 in cells greatly inhibits adipogenic potential, whereas RNAi-mediated knock-down or genetic ablation of Zfp521 enhances differentiation. In addition, Zfp521?/? embryos exhibit increased mass of interscapular brown adipose tissue and subcutaneous white adipocytes, a cell autonomous effect. Finally, Ebf1 participates in a negative feedback loop to repress Zfp521 as differentiation proceeds. Because Zfp521 is known to promote bone development, our results suggest that it acts as a critical switch in the commitment decision between the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.
Human BAT Possesses Molecular Signatures That Resemble Beige/Brite Cells
Louis Z. Sharp, Kosaku Shinoda, Haruya Ohno, David W. Scheel, Emi Tomoda, Lauren Ruiz, Houchun Hu, Larry Wang, Zdena Pavlova, Vicente Gilsanz, Shingo Kajimura
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049452
Abstract: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy and generates heat to protect animals from cold and obesity. Rodents possess two types of UCP-1 positive brown adipocytes arising from distinct developmental lineages: “classical” brown adipocytes develop during the prenatal stage whereas “beige” or “brite” cells that reside in white adipose tissue (WAT) develop during the postnatal stage in response to chronic cold or PPARγ agonists. Beige cells’ inducible characteristics make them a promising therapeutic target for obesity treatment, however, the relevance of this cell type in humans remains unknown. In the present study, we determined the gene signatures that were unique to classical brown adipocytes and to beige cells induced by a specific PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone in mice. Subsequently we applied the transcriptional data to humans and examined the molecular signatures of human BAT isolated from multiple adipose depots. To our surprise, nearly all the human BAT abundantly expressed beige cell-selective genes, but the expression of classical brown fat-selective genes were nearly undetectable. Interestingly, expression of known brown fat-selective genes such as PRDM16 was strongly correlated with that of the newly identified beige cell-selective genes, but not with that of classical brown fat-selective genes. Furthermore, histological analyses showed that a new beige cell marker, CITED1, was selectively expressed in the UCP1-positive beige cells as well as in human BAT. These data indicate that human BAT may be primary composed of beige/brite cells.
Regulation of Early Adipose Commitment by Zfp521
Sona Kang,Peter Akerblad equal contributor,Riku Kiviranta equal contributor,Rana K. Gupta,Shingo Kajimura,Michael J. Griffin,Jie Min,Roland Baron,Evan D. Rosen
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001433
Abstract: While there has been significant progress in determining the transcriptional cascade involved in terminal adipocyte differentiation, less is known about early events leading to lineage commitment and cell fate choice. It has been recently discovered that zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) is an early actor in adipose determination. Here, we show that a close paralog of Zfp423, Zfp521, acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Zfp521 exerts its actions by binding to early B cell factor 1 (Ebf1), a transcription factor required for the generation of adipocyte progenitors, and inhibiting the expression of Zfp423. Overexpression of Zfp521 in cells greatly inhibits adipogenic potential, whereas RNAi-mediated knock-down or genetic ablation of Zfp521 enhances differentiation. In addition, Zfp521?/? embryos exhibit increased mass of interscapular brown adipose tissue and subcutaneous white adipocytes, a cell autonomous effect. Finally, Ebf1 participates in a negative feedback loop to repress Zfp521 as differentiation proceeds. Because Zfp521 is known to promote bone development, our results suggest that it acts as a critical switch in the commitment decision between the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages.
Relevance in Real-Time Interpretation of Utterances  [PDF]
Shingo Tokimoto
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.56044
Abstract: This article proposes a new evaluation of relevance in the context of relevance theory (RT). Although RT has made substantial contributions to communication science, there are few studies that employ an experimental setting to examine RT in the real-time interpretation of utterances because the evaluation of relevance has remained inadequate for experimental examination. In the original RT, relevance is evaluated based on cognitive effects and processing costs, which are mutually dependent—although conceptually distinct—in the real-time interpretation of utterances. In fact, the mutual dependence of cognitive effects and processing costs is the primary reason why RT is difficult to investigate experimentally. This article proposes cognitive effects as a sigmoid function of processing costs and relevance as the ratio of cognitive effects to the processing costs required. This new evaluation of relevance is shown to have favorable theoretical consequences regarding both the convergence of the computation of utterance interpretation and the disambiguation of potentially ambiguous utterances. Furthermore, this new evaluation of relevance enhances the possibilities of examining RT experimentally.
Equilibrium Frequency of Endosymbionts in Multiple Infections Based on the Balance between Vertical Transmission and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility
Yuuki Kawasaki, Hiroshi Ito, Hisashi Kajimura
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094900
Abstract: Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)-inducing endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia and Cardinium, have been well studied through field data and validations on the basis of numerical simulations. However, the analytically derived equilibrium frequency of multiple infections has not yet been determined, although the equilibrium for cases of single infection has been reported. In this study, we considered the difference equation for endosymbionts using three parameters: the probability of the failure of vertical transmission (), CI strength (), and the level of host inbreeding (). To analyze this model, we particularly focused on , i.e., the frequency of host individuals completely infected with all -bacterial strains in the population. , at the equilibrium state, was analytically calculated in the cases where and is any arbitrary value. We found that can be described using two parameters: and , which is identical to . has a larger value in a system with a smaller . In addition, determines the maximum number of strains that infect a single host. Our results revealed the following: i) three parameters can be reduced to a single parameter, i.e., and ii) the threshold of the maximum number of infections is defined by , which prevents additional invasions by endosymbionts.
Functionally Incremental Sentence Processing and Reanalysis Difficulty in Head-Final Agglutinative Language  [PDF]
Shingo Tokimoto, Miki Uetsuki
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.51003
Abstract: This paper quantitatively expresses the degrees of processing difficulties caused by syntactically different reanalyses in Japanese sentences by questionnaire and self-paced reading experiments with non-syntactic factors strictly controlled. We propose the functionally incremental processing for Japanese sentences and we demonstrate that our hypothesis is effective to explain the degree of the processing difficulty in various sentence types. The peculiarity of Japanese processing and the relevance of our results to the human sentence processing model are discussed.
Properties and Thermal Stress Analysis of Blended Cement Self-Compacting Concrete  [PDF]
Benson Kipkemboi, Benson Kipkemboi, Shingo Miyazawa, Shingo Miyazawa
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2018.82009
Abstract: Self-Compacting concrete is a concrete that is able to flow and consolidate under its own weight, completely fill the formwork even in the presence of dense reinforcement, whilst maintaining homogeneity and without the need for any additional compaction. Self-Compacting concrete is achieved by using high proportions of powder content and super?plasticizers. Due to this, pronounced thermal cracking is anticipated. Thermal cracking in concrete structures is of great concern. The objective of this research is to carry out experiments and investigate fresh and hardened properties of SCC developed using a blend of ordinary Portland cement and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), to evaluate the applicability of Japan Concrete Institute (JCI) model?equations and?to find out any similarities and differences between Self-?Compacting concrete and normal vibrated concrete—Portland blast furnace slag concrete class B. Thermal stress analysis of the proposed Self-Compacting concrete and normal vibrated concretes were investigated by simulation using 3D FEM analysis. To carry out these objectives, concrete properties such as autogenous shrinkage, adiabatic temperature rise, drying shrinkage, modulus of elasticity, splitting tensile strength and compressive strength were determined through experiments. From experimental results, it was observed that except for the fresh properties, the hardened properties of Self-Compacting exhibit similar characteristics to those of normal vibrated concrete at almost similar water to binder ratios. It was also established that Self-Compacting concrete at W/B of 32% with a 50% replacement of ground granulated blast furnace slag has better thermal cracking resistance than SCC with 30% GGBFS replacement. It is also found that provided the relevant constants are derived from experimental data, JCI model equations can be applied successfully to evaluate hardened properties of Self-Compacting concrete.
Setaria Magna Griseb. (Poaceae), Primer reporte para Venezuela
NOZAWA,Shingo;
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2006,
Abstract: abstract setaria magna griseb. (poaceae) is reported for the first time for venezuela, both description and figures are presented. this species had been collected in the states of ara-gua, carabobo, miranda and sucre, almost always around lakes. this is a preliminar result of the taxonomic study of setaria genus in venezuela that has been conducted by the author.
Setaria Magna Griseb. (Poaceae), Primer reporte para Venezuela
Shingo NOZAWA
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2006,
Abstract: Se presenta la descripción e ilustraciones de Setaria magna Griseb. (Poaceae), nuevo reporte para Venezuela. Esta especie había sido colectada en los estados Aragua, Carabobo, Miranda y Sucre,casi siempre alrededor de lagos. Esta contribución representa un adelanto al estudio taxonómico del género Setaria en Venezuela que está realizando el autor. ABSTRACT Setaria magna Griseb. (Poaceae) is reported for the first time for Venezuela, both description and figures are presented. This species had been collected in the states of Ara-gua, Carabobo, Miranda and Sucre, almost always around lakes. This is a preliminar result of the taxonomic study of Setaria genus in Venezuela that has been conducted by the author.
Male Involvement in Childcare in Hunter–gatherer Societies: An Empirical Study in Semaq Beri, Malaysia
Shingo Odani
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n15p53
Abstract: This study investigates gender roles in childcare among Semaq Beri people who have been classified into hunter-gatherer living in the state of Pahang in Peninsular Malaysia. The perpose of this study is to verify recent anthropological studies suggesting that males in hunter-gatherer societies are more involved in childcare than males in other societies. The results show a significant difference in proximity maintenance for the child: mothers spent more time with their children than fathers did. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in holding and carrying behavior between the father and mother. The main finding of this study is that the amount of time fathers spent holding and carrying children was considerably high. Studies conducted from an evolutionary point of view found that this result is common in hunter-gatherer societies. However, earlier studies suggested that male involvement in childcare could also be observed during other activities. The results of this study did not show such generality. Aditionally, the results of this study show that people other than parents tended to not participle in childcare.
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