Abstract:
Rotating spiral waves without phase singularity are found to arise in a certain class of three-component reaction-diffusion systems of biological relevance. It is argued that this phenomenon is universal when some chemical components involved are diffusion-free. Some more detailed mathematical and numerical analyses are carried out on a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with non-local coupling to which the original system is reduced close to a codimension-two parameter set.

Abstract:
In this study we present a series of LES simulations employing the Super-Droplet Method (SDM) for representing aerosol, cloud and rain microphysics. SDM is a particle-based and probabilistic approach in which a Monte-Carlo type algorithm is used for solving the particle collisions and coalescence process. The model does not differentiate between aerosol particles, cloud droplets, drizzle or rain drops. Consequently, it covers representation of such cloud-microphysical processes as: CCN activation, drizzle formation by autoconversion, accretion of cloud droplets, self-collection of raindrops and precipitation including aerosol wet deposition. Among the salient features of the SDM, there are: (i) the robustness of the model formulation (i.e. employment of basic principles rather than parametrisations) and (ii) the ease of comparison of the model results with experimental data obtained with particle-counting instruments. The model set-up used in the study is based on observations from the Rain In Cumulus over Ocean (RICO) field project (the GEWEX Cloud System Study Boundary Layer Cloud Working Group RICO case). Cloud and rain droplet size spectrum features obtained in the simulations are compared with previously published aircraft observations carried out during the RICO field project. The analysis covers height-resolved statistics of simulated cloud microphysical parameters such as droplet number concentration, effective radius, and the width of the cloud droplet size spectrum. The sensitivity of the results to the grid resolution of the LES, as well as to the sampling density of the probabilistic (Monte-Carlo type) model is discussed.

Abstract:
Rotating spiral waves with a central core composed of phase-randomized oscillators can arise in reaction-diffusion systems if some of the chemical components involved are diffusion-free. This peculiar phenomenon is demonstrated for a paradigmatic three-component reaction-diffusion model. The origin of this anomalous spiral dynamics is the effective non-locality in coupling, whose effect is stronger for weaker coupling. There exists a critical coupling strength which is estimated from a simple argument. Detailed mathematical and numerical analyses are carried out in the extreme case of weak coupling for which the phase reduction method is applicable. Under the assumption that the mean field pattern keeps to rotate steadily as a result of a statistical cancellation of the incoherence, we derive a functional self-consistency equation to be satisfied by this space-time dependent quantity. Its solution and the resulting effective frequencies of the individual oscillators are found to agree excellently with the numerical simulation.

Abstract:
For the purpose of computer calculation to evaluate time-dependent quantum properties in finite temperature, we propose new numerical method expressed in the forms of simultaneous differential equations. At first we derive the equation of motion in finite temperature, which is found to be same expression as Heisenberg equation of motion except for the c-number. Based on this equation, we construct numerical method to estimate time-dependent physical properties in finite temperature precisely without using analytical procedures such as Keldysh formalism. Since our approach is so simple and is based on the simultaneous differential equations including no terms related to self-energies, computer programming can be easily performed. It is possible to estimate exact time-dependent physical properties, providing that Hamiltonian of the system is taken to be a one-electron picture. Furthermore, we refer to the application to the many body problem and it is numerically possible to calculate physical properties using Hartree Fock approximation. Our numerical method can be applied to the case even when perturbative Hamiltonians are newly introduced or Hamiltonian shows complex time-dependent behavior. In this article, at first, we derive the equation of motion in finite temperature. Secondly, for the purpose of verification and of exhibiting the usefulness, we show the derivation of gap equation of superconductivity and of sum rule of electrical conductivity and the application to the many body problem. Finally we apply this method to these two cases: the first case is most simplified resonance charge transfer neutralization of an ion and the second is the same process but impurity potential is newly introduced as perturbative Hamiltonian. Through both cases, it is found that neutralization process is not so sensitive to temperature, however, impurity potential as small as 10 meV strongly influences the neutralization of ion.

Abstract:
We demonstrated the insitu observation of a moving atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever using a laser confocal microscope combined with a differential interference microscope (LCM-DIM). The AFM cantilever scanned or indented the {110} surface of a hen egg-white lysozyme crystal in a supersaturated solution. Using a soft cantilever, we could observe the step growth with high time resolution by LCM-DIM and perform quantitative measurements of the step height by AFM simultaneously. In addition, a hard cantilever was used with LCM-DIM to observe the dynamics of crystal surface scratching and indentation. In the supersaturated solution, the small steps generated from the scratched line aggregated to macro steps, and subsequently flattened the surface.

Abstract:
A novel simulation model of cloud microphysics is developed, which is named Super-Droplet Method (SDM). SDM enables accurate calculation of cloud microphysics with reasonable cost in computation. A simple SDM for warm rain, which incorporates sedimentation, condensation/evaporation, stochastic coalescence, is developed. The methodology to couple SDM and a non-hydrostatic model is also developed. It is confirmed that the result of our Monte Carlo scheme for the coalescence of super-droplets agrees fairly well with the solution of stochastic coalescence equation. A preliminary simulation of a shallow maritime cumulus formation initiated by a warm bubble is presented to demonstrate the practicality of SDM. Further discussions are devoted for the extension and the computational efficiency of SDM to incorporate various properties of clouds, such as, several types of ice crystals, several sorts of soluble/insoluble CCNs, their chemical reactions, electrification, and the breakup of droplets. It is suggested that the computational cost of SDM becomes lower than spectral (bin) method when the number of attributes $d$ becomes larger than some critical value, which may be $2\sim4$.

Abstract:
Degradation of 2,6-dibromophenol (2,6-DBP) in the aqueous solution was studied using dielectric barrier discharge in micro-bubbles. Experimental comparison of working gas Ar, N_{2}, O_{2}, and air showed that oxygen and air plasma efficiently decomposed 2,6-DBP to bromide ion, and inorganic carbon. The molecular orbital model was applied in the analysis of the degradation in electrophilic, nucleophilic, and radical reactions.

The advanced oxidation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 2,5-DNP, and 3,4-DNP in aqueous solution has been investigated using a multi-gas, dielectric barrier discharge. Dielectric barrier discharge was operated in the aqueous solution and gas boundary. The degradation was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The acceleration of the advanced-oxidation has been investigated by the combination of the anion exchange polymer membrane. The result indicated that the degradation pathways involve a rapid detachment of the nitro group and a slow opening of the aromatic-ring. The hydroxyl radical and the excited hydroxyl anion are responsible for the primary attack of the DNP with the production of dihydroxy-nitrobenzenes. The attack of hydroxyl radical occurs at the benzene ring carbon activated by the presence of a phenolic OH group and a nitro group. The result suggested that the reaction is dominated by a pseudo-first order kinetic reaction. The degradation process is interpreted using Molecular Orbital Theory.

Abstract:
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare, inherited, autosomal recessive disease characterized by exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, skeletal problems and varying degrees of cytopenias resulting in bone marrow dysfunction. We report the first case of SDS that was difficult to distinguish from celiac disease because this is a valuable example of the variety in SDS presentation.

Abstract:
A simple model is proposed for the buckling and coiling instability of a viscous "fluid rope" falling on a plane. By regarding a fluid rope as a one-dimensional flow, this model accounts for only the axial and shared viscous forces. Our model successfully reproduces several experiments with no adjustable parameters, such as the existence of three distinct coiling regimes reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 214502 (2004). Our model allows for the discussion of unsteady motion. An expression for the critical fall height at which the coiling frequency changes from a decrease to increase was phenomenologically derived. It was found that the coil-uncoil transition shows remarkable hysteresis only for weak gravity condition.