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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6587 matches for " Shin-ichi Nakmura "
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Nutrients Modulate T1r2 Transcript Levels in MIN 6 and Primary Cultured Taste Buds Cells under High Glucose Condition  [PDF]
Shin-ichi Nakmura, Tetsuya Ookura
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.74033
Abstract: The sweet taste receptors comprised of T1r2 and T1r3, sense glucose concentrations in the gastrointestine. While hyperglycemia was reported to decrease the T1R2 and T1R3 tanscript levels in healthy subjects, no change was observed in type 2 diabetes patients. We investigated which glucose level and nutrients affect those transcript levels in MIN 6 and primary cultured taste buds cells using quantitative Reverse Trancription Polymerase Chain Reaction. High glucose diminished T1r2 transcript levels in MIN 6 and primary cultured taste buds cells. Resveratrol and its analogue augmented transcript levels of T1r1 and T1r2 above normal levels in MIN 6 cells in the medium with 25 mM glucose. Adenine, but not guanine, augmented T1r2 transcript levels of MIN 6 cells in the medium with 25 mM glucose. These results imply that nutrients in meals could affect sweet taste sensitivity by modulating T1r2 transcript levels in response to blood glucose levels.
Re-Evaluation of Attractor Neural Network Model to Explain Double Dissociation in Semantic Memory Disorder  [PDF]
Shin-ichi Asakawa
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A053

Structure of semantic memory was investigated in the way of neural network simulations in detail. In the literature, it is well-known that brain damaged patients often showed category specific disorder in various cognitive neuropsychological tasks like picture naming, categorisation, identification tasks and so on. In order to describe semantic memory disorder of brain damaged patients, the attractor neural network model originally proposed Hinton and Shallice (1991) was employed and was tried to re-evaluate the model performance. Especially, in order to answer the question about organization of semantic memory, how our semantic memories are organized, computer simulations were conducted. After the model learned data set (Tyler, Moss, Durrant-Peatfield, & Levy, 2000), units in hidden and cleanup layers were removed and observed its performances. The results showed category specificity. This model could also explain the double dissociation phenomena. In spite of the simplicity of its architecture, the attractor neural network might be considered to mimic human behavior in the meaning of semantic memory organization and its disorder. Although this model could explain various phenomenon in cognitive neuropsychology, it might become obvious that this model had one limitation to explain human behavior. As far as investigation in this study, asymmetry in category specificity between animate and inanimate objects might not be explained on this model without any additional assumptions. Therefore, further studies must be required to improve our understanding for semantic memory organisation.

IR Spectroscopic Study of Silicon Nitride Films Grown at a Low Substrate Temperature Using Very High Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition  [PDF]
Shin-ichi Kobayashi
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2016.64027
Abstract: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films have been grown from a SiH4–N2 gas mixture through very high frequency (VHF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 50. The films are dense and transparent in the visible region. The peak frequency of the Si–N stretching mode in the IR absorption spectrum increases with increasing N–H bond density, which is similar to the behavior of a-SiNx:H films grown from SiH4–NH3 gas. During storage in a dry air atmosphere, the Si–O absorption increases. A large shift in the peak frequency of the Si–N stretching mode in the initial stage of oxidation, which is higher than the shift expected from the increase in the N–H bond density, is mainly caused by the change in the sum of electronegativity of nearest neighbors around the Si–N bond due to the increase in the Si–O bond density.
On the Concavity of the Consumption Function with a Quadratic Utility under Liquidity Constraints  [PDF]
Shin-Ichi Nishiyama, Ryo Kato
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25104
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the concavity of the consumption function of infinitely living households under liquidity constraints who are not prudent—i.e. with a quadratic utility. The concavity of the consumption function is closely related to the 3-convexity of the value function.

Changes in Attitudes toward Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Treatment  [PDF]
Shin-ichi Konno, Miho Sekiguchi
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2014.46027
Abstract: As the environment surrounding healthcare continues to evolve, there is a need to revise outcome assessment criteria. A shift is being demanded in diagnosis and treatment outcome assessment practices from objective to subjective assessment and from evaluation by doctors to assessment that is based on the patient’s own perspective. Therefore, lumbar diseases must now be assessed from multiple perspectives. Some major indices for evaluation are pain and numbness, functional status, general health status, disability, and patient satisfaction. An effective assessment method for lumbar spinal stenos is that examines symptoms, quality of life, and healthcare economics as key assessment factor is reviewed.
Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Elastomers Containing Sucrose as a Cross-Linker  [PDF]
Kazunori Kizuka, Shin-Ichi Inoue
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2015.54011
Abstract: Polyaddition using isocyanate and polyol forms polyurethane elastomer (PUE). However, this method has rarely been applied to the construction of PUEs containing sucrose. Hence, the introduction of sucrose (disaccharide) as a cross-linker via polyaddition remains a challenging subject in polymer chemistry. Here, we report the synthesis of PUEs using an aromatic isocyanate (4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate), polyols including a polyether polyol (polytetramethylene glycol) and two polyester polyols (polycaprolactone and polycarbonate diols), and sucrose as a crosslinker by a one-shot method. The PUEs containing sucrose were successfully produced. The use of sucrose was essential to obtain the desired PUEs containing sucrose units in the main chain.
Synthesis and Properties of Chiral Polyurethane Elastomers Using Tartaric Acids  [PDF]
Kazunori Kizuka, Shin-Ichi Inoue
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2016.61005

The polyaddition of isocyanate and polyol to form polyurethane elastomers has rarely been applied to the construction of chiral polyurethane elastomers. Hence, the introduction of chiral units via polyaddition remains a challenging subject in polymer chemistry. In this study, the synthesis of chiral polyurethane elastomers using an aromatic isocyanate, polyols (polyether and polyester polyols), and L(+)-, D(−)-, or meso-tartaric acid by a one-shot method is investigated. The polymers are characterized using FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and their thermal properties are investigated by TGA, DMA, and DSC analyses. The optical activities of the polymers are confirmed by rotation. The use of chiral tartaric acids is essential to obtain the desired chiral polyurethane elastomers.

Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Elastomers with Trehalose Units  [PDF]
Kazunori Kizuka, Shin-Ichi Inoue
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2016.62007
Abstract: In recent years, sugar-derived polymer materials have been actively investigated. In research of polyurethane (PU), sugar has been used as a raw material because it has properties similar to polyol. However, the elastic property of the obtained PU is substantially lost. Hence, the introduction of a sugar unit to PU while maintaining the elastic property remains a challenge in polymer chemistry. Here, we report the synthesis of a polyurethane elastomer (PUE) with a trehalose unit using raw materials such as an aromatic diisocyanate (4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate), polyols including a polyether polyol (polytetramethylene glycol), two polyester polyols (polycaprolactone and polycarbonate diol), and trehalose. Novel PUEs with trehalose units are synthesized by a one-shot method. Trehalose, which has non-reducing properties, is used as sugar. The use of trehalose, which has been scarcely applied to PUE, is essential to obtain the desired PUEs with sugar units.
Influence of Diisocyanate on Polyurethane Elastomers Which Crosslinked by β-Cyclodextrin  [PDF]
An Xie, Ming Zhang, Shin-Ichi Inoue
Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials (OJOPM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2016.63010
Abstract: A series of polyurethane elastomers (PUEs) were synthesized by using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as cross-linker from aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic diisocyanates, and polyol. The PUEs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), swelling test, hardness test and tensile test. The influence of diisocyanate on microphase separation and properties of PUEs was evaluated.
Laterality of Accuracy of Grip and Elbow Flexion Force Exertions and Their Differences  [PDF]
Hiroki Aoki, Shin-Ichi Demura
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2017.74039
Abstract: Accuracy of grip and elbow flexion force exertions has been examined. Because agonist muscles related to the achievement of these movements differ, the laterality of their accuracy may also differ. This study aimed to examine the accuracy of grip and elbow flexion force exertions for each demand value and the difference between movements. Participants were 22 right-armed healthy young males (mean age 22.5 ± 5.6 yrs, mean height 170.9 ± 5.8 cm, mean weight 62.4 ± 9.4 kg). Demand values of 25%, 50%, and 75% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were selected. Using subjective judgment, participants were requested to exert each arm’s handgrip and elbow flexion forces for each demand value. Evaluation parameters were differences (errors) between demand and exertion values and their total error. Results of two-way ANOVA (laterality and demand value) showed a significant interaction in grip movement. In results of multiple comparisons, an error in 25% MVC was greater than that in 50% MVC and 75% MVC in the non-dominant arm. For elbow flexion movement, a significant difference was found in a demand value factor, and results of multiple comparisons showed that error was greater in the order of 25% MVC, 50% MVC, and 75% MVC in the non-dominant arm; in the dominant arm, error was greater in 25% MVC than in 50% MVC and 75% MVC. Total error showed significant interaction and was greater in elbow flexion strength than in grip strength in the non-dominant arm. In conclusion, the non-dominant arm had less error with greater demand values in grip and elbow flexion strengths, and laterality was not found in either movement at each demand value. Accuracy of force exertion in elbow flexion strength was inferior to grip strength.
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