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The aim in this study is to examine the effect of tirapazamine (TPZ) and mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) on the repair of radiation-induced damage in pimonidazole-unlabeled quiescent (Q) tumor cells. Labeling of proliferating (P) cells in C57BL/6J mice bearing EL4 tumors was achieved by continuous administration of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Tumors were irradiated with γ-rays at 1 h after the administration of pimonidazole followed by TPZ treatment or MTH. Twenty-four hours later, assessment of the responses of Q and total (= P + Q) cells were based on the frequencies of micronucleation and apoptosis using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The response of the pimonidazole-unlabeled tumor cell fractions was assessed by means of apoptosis frequency using immunofluorescence staining for pimonidazole. With γ-rays only, the pimonidazole-unlabeled cell fraction showed significantly enhanced radio-sensitivity compared with the whole cell fraction more remarkably in Q cells than total cells. However, a significantly greater decrease in radio-sensitivity in the pimonidazole-unlabeled than the whole cell fraction, evaluated using a delayed assay, was more clearly observed in Q cells than total cells. Post-irradiation MTH more remarkably repressed the decrease in radio-sensitivity in the Q cell than the total cells. Post-irradiation TPZ administration produced a large radio-sensitizing effect on both total and Q cells, especially on Q cells. On the other hand, in pimonidazole-unlabeled cell fractions in both total and Q cells, TPZ suppressed the reduction in sensitivity due to delayed assay much more efficiently than MTH, whereas no radio-sensitizing effect was produced. Not only through suppressing the recovery from radiation-induced damage but also through radio-sensitizing effect, post-irradiation TPZ administration is very useful for repressing the increase in the difference in radio-sensitivity due to the delayed assay not only between total and Q tumor cells but also between the pimonidazole-unlabeled and the whole cell fractions within the total and Q tumor cells.