Abstract:
ICT influences various phases of language studies and education. Its application for appliedlinguistics has been mainly attempted in the field of corpus linguistics, which describes hownative speakers (NS) use the language and how its use by non-native speakers (NNS) deviatesfrom the NS norm. In the current study, we focused on the English linking adverbials (LA),which plays an important role in the logical cohesion of a text. By analyzing a newly-compiledinternational learner corpus to compare LA uses by English NS and Asian NNS, includingJapanese learners of English (JLE) and their Chinese counterparts (CLE), we obtained severalnoteworthy findings. First, the gap between NS and Asian NNS is rather limited in terms of thequantity of LA used in essay writing. Second, Asian NNS tend to overuse addictive types of LA.Third, Asian NNS overuse LA items concerning the introduction of additional information andintensification of meaning, while underusing LA items concerning the introduction of parallelinformation and sequential introduction of information. Finally, JLE, CLE, and NS use major LAitems in their own ways, which are hardly influenced by L2 proficiency.

Abstract:
We show that it is possible to construct a quantum field theory that is invariant under the translation of the noncommutative parameter $\theta_{\mu\nu}$. This is realized in a noncommutative cohomological field theory. As an example, a noncommutative cohomological scalar field theory is constructed, and its partition function is calculated. The partition function is the Euler number of Gopakumar, Minwalla and Strominger (GMS) soliton space.

Abstract:
We found an exact solution of elongated U(1) instanton on noncommutative R^4 for general instanton number k. The deformed ADHM equation was solved with general k and the gauge connection and the curvature were given explicitly. We also checked our solutions and evaluated the instanton charge by a numerical calculation.

Abstract:
In noncommutative spaces, it is unknown whether the Pontrjagin class gives integer, as well as, the relation between the instanton number and Pontrjagin class is not clear. Here we define ``Instanton number'' by the size of $B_{\alpha}$ in the ADHM construction. We show the analytical derivation of the noncommuatative U(1) instanton number as an integral of Pontrjagin class (instanton charge) with the Fock space representation. Our approach is for the arbitrary converge noncommutative U(1) instanton solution, and is based on the anti-self-dual (ASD) equation itself. We give the Stokes' theorem for the number operator representation. The Stokes' theorem on the noncommutative space shows that instanton charge is given by some boundary sum. Using the ASD conditions, we conclude that the instanton charge is equivalent to the instanton number.

Abstract:
For the purpose of computer calculation to evaluate time-dependent quantum properties in finite temperature, we propose new numerical method expressed in the forms of simultaneous differential equations. At first we derive the equation of motion in finite temperature, which is found to be same expression as Heisenberg equation of motion except for the c-number. Based on this equation, we construct numerical method to estimate time-dependent physical properties in finite temperature precisely without using analytical procedures such as Keldysh formalism. Since our approach is so simple and is based on the simultaneous differential equations including no terms related to self-energies, computer programming can be easily performed. It is possible to estimate exact time-dependent physical properties, providing that Hamiltonian of the system is taken to be a one-electron picture. Furthermore, we refer to the application to the many body problem and it is numerically possible to calculate physical properties using Hartree Fock approximation. Our numerical method can be applied to the case even when perturbative Hamiltonians are newly introduced or Hamiltonian shows complex time-dependent behavior. In this article, at first, we derive the equation of motion in finite temperature. Secondly, for the purpose of verification and of exhibiting the usefulness, we show the derivation of gap equation of superconductivity and of sum rule of electrical conductivity and the application to the many body problem. Finally we apply this method to these two cases: the first case is most simplified resonance charge transfer neutralization of an ion and the second is the same process but impurity potential is newly introduced as perturbative Hamiltonian. Through both cases, it is found that neutralization process is not so sensitive to temperature, however, impurity potential as small as 10 meV strongly influences the neutralization of ion.

Abstract:
Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a practical tool currently used in surgical operation of aggressive brain tumors, such as glioblastoma. PDD is achieved by a photon-induced physicochemical reaction which is induced by excitation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) exposed to light. Fluorescence-guided gross-total resection has recently been developed in PDD, where 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or its ester is administered as the precursor of PpIX. ALA induces the accumulation of PpIX, a natural photo-sensitizer, in cancer cells. Recent studies provide evidence that adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG2 plays a pivotal role in regulating the cellular accumulation of porphyrins in cancer cells and thereby affects the efficacy of PDD. Protein kinase inhibitors are suggested to potentially enhance the PDD efficacy by blocking ABCG2-mediated porphyrin efflux from cancer cells. It is of great interest to develop potent ABCG2-inhibitors that can be applied to PDD for brain tumor therapy. This review article addresses a pivotal role of human ABC transporter ABCG2 in PDD as well as a new？approach of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis to design potent ABCG2-inhibitors.

Abstract:
Statistical mechanics and semi-empirical molecular orbital theory (PM6) are used to calculate the surface coverage of CO_{2} and H_{2} molecular species chemically adsorbed on the surface of Cu and Zn micro clusters. The calculation shows that CO_{2} is adsorbed well both on the surface of Cu and Zn micro clusters. Although H_{2} is adsorbed well on the surface of Zn micro clusters, H_{2} absorption on the surface of Cu micro clusters is much more limited in the pressure range of 20 - 100 atm and temperature range of 200 - 1000 K. Reaction rates are also estimated for some chemical adsorption process of H_{2} gas using theory of absolute reaction rates. It is found that the values of the reaction rate calculated in the present paper agree reasonably well with the experimental values.

Abstract:
The present study of KCNQ4 mutations was carried out to 1) determine the prevalence by unbiased population-based genetic screening, 2) clarify the mutation spectrum and genotype/phenotype correlations, and 3) summarize clinical characteristics. In addition, a review of the reported mutations was performed for better understanding of this deafness gene. The screening using 287 probands from unbiased Japanese autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) families identified 19 families with 7 different disease causing mutations, indicating that the frequency is 6.62% (19/287). While the majority were private mutations, one particular recurrent mutation, c.211delC, was observed in 13 unrelated families. Haplotype analysis in the vicinity of c.211delC suggests existence of a common ancestor. The majority of the patients showed all frequency, but high-frequency predominant, sensorineural hearing loss. The present study adds a new typical audiogram configuration characterized by mid-frequency predominant hearing loss caused by the p.V230E mutation. A variant at the N-terminal site (c. 211delC) showed typical ski-slope type audiogram configuration. Concerning clinical features, onset age was from 3 to 40 years old, and mostly in the teens, and hearing loss was gradually progressive. Progressive nature is a common feature of patients with KCNQ4 mutations regardless of the mutation type. In conclusion, KCNQ4 mutations are frequent among ADNSHL patients, and therefore screening of the gene and molecular confirmation of these mutations have become important in the diagnosis of these conditions.

Abstract:
Large-scale storage cluster systems need to manage a vast amount of information denoting combinations of data identifiers (IDs) and corresponding nodes that store the data. Management using data distribution algorithms, rather than management using tables, has been proposed in recent research. In algorithm management, data are distributed in accordance with a data distribution algorithm that is capable of determining, on the basis of the datum ID, the node in which the required data is being stored. Among the requirements for a data distribution algorithm are short calculation times, low memory consumption, uniform data distribution in accordance with the capacity of each node and the ability to handle the addition or removal of nodes. This paper presents a data distribution algorithm called ASURA (Advanced Scalable and Uniform storage by Random number Algorithm), which satisfies these requirements. It offers roughly 0.6-{\mu}s calculation time, kilobyte-order memory consumption, less than 1% maximum variability between nodes in data distribution, data distribution in accordance with the capacity of each node and optimal data movement to maintain data distribution in accordance with node capacity when nodes are added or removed. ASURA is contrasted in this paper qualitatively and quantitatively with representative data distribution algorithms: Consistent Hashing and Straw Buckets in CRUSH. The comparison results show that ASURA can achieve the same storage cluster capacity as Consistent Hashing with dozens fewer nodes by virtue of the uniformity of its distribution with the same level calculation time. They also show that the execution time of ASURA is shorter than that of Straw Buckets in CRUSH. The results reveal that ASURA is the best algorithm for large-scale storage cluster systems.