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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 133933 matches for " Shilpa V. Jamwal equal contributor "
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Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Expressed by Regulating Metabolic Thresholds of the Host Macrophage
Parul Mehrotra equal contributor,Shilpa V. Jamwal equal contributor,Najmuddin Saquib,Neeraj Sinha,Zaved Siddiqui,Venkatasamy Manivel,Samrat Chatterjee,Kanury V. S. Rao
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004265
Abstract: The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen derives from its facile adaptation to the intracellular milieu of human macrophages. To explore this process, we asked whether adaptation also required interference with the metabolic machinery of the host cell. Temporal profiling of the metabolic flux, in cells infected with differently virulent mycobacterial strains, confirmed that this was indeed the case. Subsequent analysis identified the core subset of host reactions that were targeted. It also elucidated that the goal of regulation was to integrate pathways facilitating macrophage survival, with those promoting mycobacterial sustenance. Intriguingly, this synthesis then provided an axis where both host- and pathogen-derived factors converged to define determinants of pathogenicity. Consequently, whereas the requirement for macrophage survival sensitized TB susceptibility to the glycemic status of the individual, mediation by pathogen ensured that the virulence properties of the infecting strain also contributed towards the resulting pathology.
Rapid Encoding and Perception of Novel Odors in the Rat
Daniel W Wesson equal contributor,Ryan M Carey equal contributor,Justus V Verhagen equal contributor,Matt Wachowiak
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060082
Abstract: To gain insight into which parameters of neural activity are important in shaping the perception of odors, we combined a behavioral measure of odor perception with optical imaging of odor representations at the level of receptor neuron input to the rat olfactory bulb. Instead of the typical test of an animal's ability to discriminate two familiar odorants by exhibiting an operant response, we used a spontaneously expressed response to a novel odorant—exploratory sniffing—as a measure of odor perception. This assay allowed us to measure the speed with which rats perform spontaneous odor discriminations. With this paradigm, rats discriminated and began responding to a novel odorant in as little as 140 ms. This time is comparable to that measured in earlier studies using operant behavioral readouts after extensive training. In a subset of these trials, we simultaneously imaged receptor neuron input to the dorsal olfactory bulb with near-millisecond temporal resolution as the animal sampled and then responded to the novel odorant. The imaging data revealed that the bulk of the discrimination time can be attributed to the peripheral events underlying odorant detection: receptor input arrives at the olfactory bulb 100–150 ms after inhalation begins, leaving only 50–100 ms for central processing and response initiation. In most trials, odor discrimination had occurred even before the initial barrage of receptor neuron firing had ceased and before spatial maps of activity across glomeruli had fully developed. These results suggest a coding strategy in which the earliest-activated glomeruli play a major role in the initial perception of odor quality, and place constraints on coding and processing schemes based on simple changes in spike rate.
LmaPA2G4, a Homolog of Human Ebp1, Is an Essential Gene and Inhibits Cell Proliferation in L. major
Brianna Norris-Mullins equal contributor,Kaitlin VanderKolk equal contributor,Paola Vacchina equal contributor,Michelle V. Joyce,Miguel A. Morales
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002646
Abstract: We have identified LmaPA2G4, a homolog of the human proliferation-associated 2G4 protein (also termed Ebp1), in a phosphoproteomic screening. Multiple sequence alignment and cluster analysis revealed that LmaPA2G4 is a non-peptidase member of the M24 family of metallopeptidases. This pseudoenzyme is structurally related to methionine aminopeptidases. A null mutant system based on negative selection allowed us to demonstrate that LmaPA2G4 is an essential gene in Leishmania major. Over-expression of LmaPA2G4 did not alter cell morphology or the ability to differentiate into metacyclic and amastigote stages. Interestingly, the over-expression affected cell proliferation and virulence in mouse footpad analysis. LmaPA2G4 binds a synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] as shown in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Quantitative proteomics revealed that the over-expression of LmaPA2G4 led to accumulation of factors involved in translation initiation and elongation. Significantly, we found a strong reduction of de novo protein biosynthesis in transgenic parasites using a non-radioactive metabolic labeling assay. In conclusion, LmaPA2G4 is an essential gene and is potentially implicated in fundamental biological mechanisms, such as translation, making it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry5B Protein Is Highly Efficacious as a Single-Dose Therapy against an Intestinal Roundworm Infection in Mice
Yan Hu equal contributor,Sophia B. Georghiou equal contributor,Alan J. Kelleher,Raffi V. Aroian
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000614
Abstract: Background Intestinal parasitic nematode diseases are one of the great diseases of our time. Intestinal roundworm parasites, including hookworms, whipworms, and Ascaris, infect well over 1 billion people and cause significant morbidity, especially in children and pregnant women. To date, there is only one drug, albendazole, with adequate efficacy against these parasites to be used in mass drug administration, although tribendimidine may emerge as a second. Given the hundreds of millions of people to be treated, the threat of parasite resistance, and the inadequacy of current treatments, new anthelmintics are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) proteins are the most common used biologically produced insecticides in the world and are considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Methods/Principal Findings Here we study the ability of a nematicidal Cry protein, Cry5B, to effect a cure in mice of a chronic roundworm infection caused by the natural intestinal parasite, Heligmosomoides bakeri (formerly polygyrus). We show that Cry5B produced from either of two Bt strains can act as an anthelmintic in vivo when administered as a single dose, achieving a ~98% reduction in parasite egg production and ~70% reduction in worm burdens when delivered per os at ~700 nmoles/kg (90–100 mg/kg). Furthermore, our data, combined with the findings of others, suggest that the relative efficacy of Cry5B is either comparable or superior to current anthelmintics. We also demonstrate that Cry5B is likely to be degraded quite rapidly in the stomach, suggesting that the actual dose reaching the parasites is very small. Conclusions/Significance This study indicates that Bt Cry proteins such as Cry5B have excellent anthelmintic properties in vivo and that proper formulation of the protein is likely to reveal a superior anthelmintic.
Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 Is Required for Protein Localization to Cajal Body
Elena Kotova equal contributor,Michael Jarnik equal contributor,Alexei V. Tulin
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000387
Abstract: Recently, the nuclear protein known as Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) was shown to play a key role in regulating transcription of a number of genes and controlling the nuclear sub-organelle nucleolus. PARP1 enzyme is known to catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose to a variety of nuclear proteins. At present, however, while we do know that the main acceptor for pADPr in vivo is PARP1 protein itself, by PARP1 automodification, the significance of PARP1 automodification for in vivo processes is not clear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of PARP1 auto ADP-ribosylation in dynamic nuclear processes during development. Specifically, we discovered that PARP1 automodification is required for shuttling key proteins into Cajal body (CB) by protein non-covalent interaction with pADPr in vivo. We hypothesize that PARP1 protein shuttling follows a chain of events whereby, first, most unmodified PARP1 protein molecules bind to chromatin and accumulate in nucleoli, but then, second, upon automodification with poly(ADP-ribose), PARP1 interacts non-covalently with a number of nuclear proteins such that the resulting protein-pADPr complex dissociates from chromatin into CB.
Molecular Basis for Genetic Resistance of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium: Structural Analysis of TEP1 Susceptible and Resistant Alleles
Binh V. Le equal contributor,Marni Williams equal contributor,Shankar Logarajah,Richard H. G. Baxter
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002958
Abstract: Thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a central component in the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium infection. Two classes of TEP1 alleles, TEP1*S and TEP1*R, are found in both laboratory strains and wild isolates, related by a greater or lesser susceptibility, respectively to both P. berghei and P. falciparum infection. We report the crystal structure of the full-length TEP1*S1 allele which, while similar to the previously determined structure of full-length TEP1*R1, displays flexibility in the N-terminal fragment comprising domains MG1-MG6. Amino acid differences between TEP1*R1 and TEP1*S1 are localized to the TED-MG8 domain interface that protects the thioester bond from hydrolysis and structural changes are apparent at this interface. As a consequence cleaved TEP1*S1 (TEP1*S1cut) is significantly more susceptible to hydrolysis of its intramolecular thioester bond than TEP1*R1cut. TEP1*S1cut is stabilized in solution by the heterodimeric LRIM1/APL1C complex, which preserves the thioester bond within TEP1*S1cut. These results suggest a mechanism by which selective pressure on the TEP1 gene results in functional variation that may influence the vector competence of A. gambiae towards Plasmodium infection.
Importance of the Collagen Adhesin Ace in Pathogenesis and Protection against Enterococcus faecalis Experimental Endocarditis
Kavindra V. Singh equal contributor,Sreedhar R. Nallapareddy equal contributor,Jouko Sillanp??,Barbara E. Murray
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000716
Abstract: Ace is an adhesin to collagen from Enterococcus faecalis expressed conditionally after growth in serum or in the presence of collagen. Here, we generated an ace deletion mutant and showed that it was significantly attenuated versus wild-type OG1RF in a mixed infection rat endocarditis model (P<0.0001), while no differences were observed in a peritonitis model. Complemented OG1RFΔace (pAT392::ace) enhanced early (4 h) heart valve colonization versus OG1RFΔace (pAT392) (P = 0.0418), suggesting that Ace expression is important for early attachment. By flow cytometry using specific anti-recombinant Ace (rAce) immunoglobulins (Igs), we showed in vivo expression of Ace by OG1RF cells obtained directly from infected vegetations, consistent with our previous finding of anti-Ace antibodies in E. faecalis endocarditis patient sera. Finally, rats actively immunized against rAce were less susceptible to infection by OG1RF than non-immunized (P = 0.0004) or sham-immunized (P = 0.0475) by CFU counts. Similarly, animals given specific anti-rAce Igs were less likely to develop E. faecalis endocarditis (P = 0.0001) and showed fewer CFU in vegetations (P = 0.0146). In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that Ace is involved in pathogenesis of, and is useful for protection against, E. faecalis experimental endocarditis.
Role of a Novel PH-Kinase Domain Interface in PKB/Akt Regulation: Structural Mechanism for Allosteric Inhibition
Véronique Calleja equal contributor ,Michel Laguerre equal contributor,Peter J Parker,Banafshé Larijani
PLOS Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000017
Abstract: Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) belongs to the AGC superfamily of related serine/threonine protein kinases. It is a key regulator downstream of various growth factors and hormones and is involved in malignant transformation and chemo-resistance. Full-length PKB protein has not been crystallised, thus studying the molecular mechanisms that are involved in its regulation in relation to its structure have not been simple. Recently, the dynamics between the inactive and active conformer at the molecular level have been described. The maintenance of PKB's inactive state via the interaction of the PH and kinase domains prevents its activation loop to be phosphorylated by its upstream activator, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). By using a multidisciplinary approach including molecular modelling, classical biochemical assays, and F?rster resonance energy transfer (FRET)/two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), a detailed model depicting the interaction between the different domains of PKB in its inactive conformation was demonstrated. These findings in turn clarified the molecular mechanism of PKB inhibition by AKT inhibitor VIII (a specific allosteric inhibitor) and illustrated at the molecular level its selectivity towards different PKB isoforms. Furthermore, these findings allude to the possible function of the C-terminus in sustaining the inactive conformer of PKB. This study presents essential insights into the quaternary structure of PKB in its inactive conformation. An understanding of PKB structure in relation to its function is critical for elucidating its mode of activation and discovering how to modulate its activity. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of PKB activation by the specific drug AKT inhibitor VIII has critical implications for determining the mechanism of inhibition of other allosteric inhibitors and for opening up opportunities for the design of new generations of modulator drugs.
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Subtype C Molecular Variants among Indigenous Australians: New Insights into the Molecular Epidemiology of HTLV-1 in Australo-Melanesia
Olivier Cassar equal contributor,Lloyd Einsiedel equal contributor,Philippe V. Afonso,Antoine Gessain
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002418
Abstract: Background HTLV-1 infection is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Molecular studies reveal that these Melanesian strains belong to the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. In Australia, HTLV-1 is also endemic among the Indigenous people of central Australia; however, the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection in this population remains poorly documented. Findings Studying a series of 23 HTLV-1 strains from Indigenous residents of central Australia, we analyzed coding (gag, pol, env, tax) and non-coding (LTR) genomic proviral regions. Four complete HTLV-1 proviral sequences were also characterized. Phylogenetic analyses implemented with both Neighbor-Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods revealed that all proviral strains belong to the HTLV-1c subtype with a high genetic diversity, which varied with the geographic origin of the infected individuals. Two distinct Australians clades were found, the first including strains derived from most patients whose origins are in the North, and the second comprising a majority of those from the South of central Australia. Time divergence estimation suggests that the speciation of these two Australian clades probably occurred 9,120 years ago (38,000–4,500). Conclusions The HTLV-1c subtype is endemic to central Australia where the Indigenous population is infected with diverse subtype c variants. At least two Australian clades exist, which cluster according to the geographic origin of the human hosts. These molecular variants are probably of very ancient origin. Further studies could provide new insights into the evolution and modes of dissemination of these retrovirus variants and the associated ancient migration events through which early human settlement of Australia and Melanesia was achieved.
Down-Regulation of Honey Bee IRS Gene Biases Behavior toward Food Rich in Protein
Ying Wang equal contributor,Navdeep S. Mutti equal contributor,Kate E. Ihle equal contributor,Adam Siegel,Adam G. Dolezal,Osman Kaftanoglu,Gro V. Amdam
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000896
Abstract: Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) could provide a model for these studies since individuals vary in food-related behavior and social factors can be controlled. Here, we examine a potential role of peripheral insulin receptor substrate (IRS) expression in honey bee foraging behavior. IRS is central to cellular nutrient sensing through transduction of insulin/insulin-like signals (IIS). By reducing peripheral IRS gene expression and IRS protein amount with the use of RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that IRS influences foraging choice in two standard strains selected for different food-hoarding behavior. Compared with controls, IRS knockdowns bias their foraging effort toward protein (pollen) rather than toward carbohydrate (nectar) sources. Through control experiments, we establish that IRS does not influence the bees' sucrose sensory response, a modality that is generally associated with food-related behavior and specifically correlated with the foraging preference of honey bees. These results reveal a new affector pathway of honey bee social foraging, and suggest that IRS expressed in peripheral tissue can modulate an insect's foraging choice between protein and carbohydrate sources.
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