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Shihab Hattab Mutlag,Dawser K Ismael,Nada N Al-Shawi*
Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Liver is considered as the major organ responsible for conducting various metabolic processes and according to it’s highly exposed to toxic effect of different xenobiotics predisposing to many types of diseases and disorders. The role of plant with antioxidant activity in the treatment and prevention of chemical-induced liver damage was extensively studies. Ammi majus show antioxidant effect their use in diabetic nephropathy and myocardial injury due to the presence of different active constituent such as quercetine, marmesinin, kempefrol and other compounds that inhibit cytochrome p450 such as xanthotoxin bergapten, imperatorin and isoimpinellin. Accordingly, this study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous solution of ethanolic extract of the Ammi majus against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in rats. Eighty adult rats of both sex divided into four groups allocated as follows: Group I- (negative control), rats received D.W 2ml/kg for 14 days. Group II- rats treated with single oral daily dose Ammi majus seeds extract 16mg/rat/day alone for 14 days. The animals of groups I and II were sacrificed by anesthetic ether on the day 15. Group III- (positive control) rats received single oral daily dose of 2ml/kg/day D.W. for 14 days and at the day 15, the animals received single oral dose of CCl4, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic ether 24 hr after CCl4 administration. Groups IV (A, B, C, D and E) received either (1mg or 2mg or 4mg or 8mg or 16mg/rat/day), respectively for 14 days of Ammi majus ethanolic extract then at the day 15 they received single dose of CCl4 then sacrificed after 24 hours after CCl4 administration. Rats' livers were obtained for preparation of tissue homogenate to evaluate MDA & GSH in the hepatic homogenate as indicator of lipid peroxidation. Blood samples were collected by intra-cardiac puncture, and utilized for evaluating serum enzymes activities manifested by aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in addition for assessing total serum Bilirubin (TSB). Analysis of data revealed significant amelioration of oxidative stress in rats pre-treated with different doses of Ammi majus extract (4mg,8mg and 16mg/rat/day for 14days) compared to group III of animals intoxicated by CCl4 as evidenced by lowering MDA contents and elevation of GSH levels in liver tissue homogenate but the levels still significantly different compared to controls. Elevation of serum activities of ALT, AST and ALP, in addition to TSB levels as a results of t
On the Emergence and Awareness of Auditory Objects
Shihab Shamma
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060155
On the Emergence and Awareness of Auditory Objects
Shihab Shamma
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060155
Sequential Remediation Processes for a Low Level Pesticide Wastewater  [PDF]
Mariam T. Al hattab, Abdel E. Ghaly
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.32019
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a remediation system for the treatment of a low-level pesticide wastewater that uses available onfarm organic matter as an absorption media, is capable of reducing the concentration of the pesticide to a safe level and is economically viable for implementation by farmers. The absorption capacity of chopped hay and soybean to the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch conditions and the effectiveness of the composting process in depredating captan in contaminated organic materials was evaluated. The results showed that both hay and soybean plant residues were very effective in absorbing 99.2% and 98.5% of captan form the wastewater after 4 hours, respectively. Because of its availability, hay can be used in an onfarm pesticide immobilization system that consists of shallow reinforced concrete pit (filled with hay) with steel bars across the top for machinery to roll onto and be washed. The wastewater can be retained for 24 hours which is a sufficient time for hay to absorb the captan. The contaminated hay can then be composted. The addition of used cooking oil raised the temperature of the composting mixture to 63?C. Small reductions in moisture content (from 60% to 58.9 %) and C:N ratio (from 30:1 to 28:1) were observed while reductions of 18.92%, 15.56% and 4.8% in the volatile solids, total carbon total Kjeldahl nitrogen were achieved after 10 d of composting, respectively. About 92.4% of the captan was degraded in the first 4 days of composting. Most of captan (92.4%) was degraded during the mesophilic stage (first 3 days). The degradation rate constant for the mesophilic stage (0.724 d-1) was 2.74 times the degradation rate constant for the thermophilic stage (0.264 d-1). An onfarm windrow composting process would be very effective in degrading captan contaminated hay. The captan contaminated hay could be mixed with equal amount poultry manure or dairy manure to provide the required bioavailable carbon and nutrients for the composting process. Some used cooking oil could also be added to maintain higher temperature within the compost matrix. The windrows should be mixed on a daily basis to provide sufficient oxygen for the composting microorganisms.
Disposal and Treatment Methods for Pesticide Containing Wastewaters: Critical Review and Comparative Analysis  [PDF]
Mariam T. Al Hattab, Abdel E. Ghaly
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.35054
Abstract: Pesticides provide the primary means for controlling organisms that compete with man for food and fibre or cause injury to man, livestock and crops. They played a vital role in the economic production of wide ranges of vegetable, fruit, cereal, forage, fibre and oil crops which now constitute a large part of successful agricultural industry in many countries. After application to the target areas, pesticide residues are removed from applicators by rinsing with water which results in the formation of a toxic wastewater that represents a disposal problem for many farmers. Pesticides can adversely affect people, pets, livestock and wildlife in addition to the pests they are intended to destroy. The phenomenon of biomagnification of some pesticides has resulted in reproductive failure of some fish species and egg shell thinning of birds such as peregrine falcons, sparrow hawk and eagle owls. Pesticide toxicity to humans include skin and eye irritation and skin cancer. Therefore, care must be exercised in the application, disposal and treatment of pesticides. Currently, disposal of pesticide wastewater is carried out by: 1) land cultivation, 2) dumping in soil pits, plastic pits and concrete pits or on land and in extreme cases in streams near the rinsing operation, 3) use of evaporation beds and 4) land filling. These methods of disposal are unsafe as the surface run off will reach streams, rivers and lakes and the infiltration of the wastewater into the local soil will eventually reach ground water. The treatment methods currently used for pesticide wastewater include: 1) incineration (incinerators and open burning), 2) chemical treatments (O3/UV, hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation and KPEG), 3) physical treatments (inorganic, organic absorbents and activated carbon) and 4) biological treatments (composting, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation). Therefore, the choice of safe, on farm disposal techniques for agricultural pesticides is very important. A comparative analysis was performed on 18 methods of pesticide disposal/treatment using six criteria: containment, detoxification ability, cost, time, suitability for on farm use, size and evaporation efficiency. The results indicated that of the 18 methods evaluated, 9 scored above 80/100 and can be used on farm. They were organic absorbents (97), composting (94), bioaugmentation (92), inorganic absorbents (90), Fenton oxidation (86), O3/UV (83), activated carbon (82), hydrolysis (82), and land cultivation (80). The other methods are not suitable for on farm use as they suffered from containment problems, high
An Empirical Study of Sources Affecting E-Business Value Creation in Jordanian Banking Services Sector
Ali. Alawneh,Ezz Hattab
International Arab Journal of e-Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Grounded in the technology–organization–environment (TOE) framework, we have developed an extended conceptual research model for assessing the value of e-business at the bank level. For the purposes of our research some constructs were added to (TOE) framework such as IT/Business strategy alignment, adequacy of IT professionals, and availability of online revenues. Other factors were excluded such as the global scope since our research is at the national level in Jordanian banking sector. Based on our enhanced framework, we have formulated eight hypotheses and identify eight factors (technology readiness or competence, bank size, financial resources commitment, IT/Business strategy alignment, adequacy of IT professionals, availability of online revenues, competition intensity or pressure, and regulatory support environment) that may affect value creation of carrying out e-business in Jordanian banking sector. Survey data from 140 employees in seven pioneered banks in the Jordanian banking services industry were collected and used to test the theoretical model. Based on simple and multiple linear regressions, our empirical analysis demonstrates several key findings: (1) technology readiness is found to have the strongest significant influence on the e-business value in banks. (2) Bank size, IT/Business strategy alignment, and availability of online revenues are found to have significant influence on the e-business value in banks, while financial resources commitment and adequacy of IT professionals do not contribute significantly to e-business value. (3) Both the competition intensity and regulatory support environment contribute significantly to value creation of e-business in banks. These findings indicate the usefulness of the proposed research model for studying e-business value in banks. They also provide insights for both business managers and policy-makers.
Experimental Proof of the Existence of a Bifurcation Process During the undrained test in Clay
P. Evesque,M. Hattab
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Recent papers, based on a new simple incremental modelling which assumes an "isotropic" response, predicts that the trajectory followed during an undrained compression test exhibits a bifurcation process when the stress field arrives at q=M'p', where q stands for the deviatoric stress, p' for the mean stress and M' is a coefficient describing friction. This indicates a discontinuous change of solution when arriving at q=M'p'. This paper looks at experimental data on dense sample obtained at p'=constant, and it shows that the trajectory (p'=constant, v=constant) does continue to exist at and beyond the q=M'p' plane. So, this demonstrates the validity of the analysis which uses the bifurcation theory and this strengthens the proposed modelling. Indeed, this demonstrates the reality of the bifurcation process during undrained compression. Pacs # : 5.40 ; 45.70 ; 62.20 ; 83.70.Fn
Experimental Test of the validity of "Isotropic" Approximation for the Mechanical Behaviour of Clay
P. Evesque,M. Hattab
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Experimental data from axially symmetric compression test at constant mean pressure p on kaolinite clay are used to study the validity of an "isotropic" modelling as a function of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR).The isotropic assumption is found to be quite good for 24. For very large OCR (OCR >10), anisotropic response is observed at few percents of axial deformation. Relation with anisotropic distribution of local forces is made. Pacs # : 5.40 ; 45.70 ; 62.20 ; 83.70.Fn
Multiband Spectrum Sensing: Challenges and Limitations
Ghaith Hattab,Mohamed Ibnkahla
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Multiband spectrum access presents the next generation of cognitive radio networks (CRNs), where multiple bands are sensed and accessed to enhance the network's throughput, improve spectrum's maintenance, and reduce handoff frequency and data transmission interruptions due to the activities of the primary users. In this paper, we discuss the challenges and limitations of the major multiband spectrum sensing techniques. Particularly, we highlight the edge-detection problem and examine several issues of the state-of-the-art wavelet-based techniques. We also study the compressive sensing problem. Finally, we highlight the promises of utilizing the angle-domain for the CRNs.
Multiband Spectrum Access: Great Promises for Future Cognitive Radio Networks
Ghaith Hattab,Mohammed Ibnkahla
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2014.2303977
Abstract: Cognitive radio has been widely considered as one of the prominent solutions to tackle the spectrum scarcity. While the majority of existing research has focused on single-band cognitive radio, multiband cognitive radio represents great promises towards implementing efficient cognitive networks compared to single-based networks. Multiband cognitive radio networks (MB-CRNs) are expected to significantly enhance the network's throughput and provide better channel maintenance by reducing handoff frequency. Nevertheless, the wideband front-end and the multiband spectrum access impose a number of challenges yet to overcome. This paper provides an in-depth analysis on the recent advancements in multiband spectrum sensing techniques, their limitations, and possible future directions to improve them. We study cooperative communications for MB-CRNs to tackle a fundamental limit on diversity and sampling. We also investigate several limits and tradeoffs of various design parameters for MB-CRNs. In addition, we explore the key MB-CRNs performance metrics that differ from the conventional metrics used for single-band based networks.
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