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To estimate seismic damage of structures under strong motions is very important to know true safety of structures. However, we have to deal with very small failure probability issue to investigate quantitatively. If we use standard MCS (Monte Calro Simulation) to discuss failure probability, e.g., 1 × 10-6 order, since we have to execute nonlinear dynamic response analyses of approximate 107 times, it is not realistic. Recently, a subset simulation, which reduces the computation time by replacing small failure probability into the product of conditional failure probabilities, was proposed. In this study, the subset simulation is applied to estimate failure probability of an actual reinforced concrete building with 11 stories, and discuss the safety of the structure by checking with design criteria.
spin-magnetic moment of the electron is revisited. In the form of the
relativistic quantum mechanics, we calculate the magnetic moment of Dirac
electron with no orbital angular-momentum. It is inferred that obtained
magnetic moment may be the spin-magnetic moment, because it is never due to
orbital motion. A transition current flowing from a positive energy state to a
negative energy state in Dirac Sea is found. Application to the band structure
of semiconductor is suggested.
Objective: In our search for a new augmentation therapy for stroke patients, we administered cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent. Subjects: The patients suffered from mild hemiparesis or cognitive disorder showing reduced cerebral perfusion in the prefrontal cortex. Methods: We evaluated the functional cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after the administration of cilostazol using near-infrared resonance spectroscopy (NIRS) during a verbal fluency task (VFT). Results: For the patient with cognitive disorder, statistically significant improvements were observed in the number of generated words in the VFT before and after administration of 50 mg cilostazol (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Another patient without cognitive disorder, however, showed no significant VFT improvement after administration of cilostazol. Effect size data revealed large or very large effects of cilostazol on brain activation (oxy-Hb levels) at the affected side prefrontal cortex for both patients. The patient with cognitive disorder showed significant improvement in VFT performance as well as an increase in bilateral prefrontal CBF after cilostazol administration. Discussion: These findings suggest that, for patients with cerebrovascular lesions suffering from cognitive disorder, cilostazol may be promising as a drug to improve cognitive function in addition to preventing recurrent cerebral infarction.