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In clinical cellular
cardiomyoplasty, bone marrow cells and myoblasts are introduced mainly to ischemic cardiomyopathy
tissue via several cell delivery systems, such as needle injection or catheter.
These clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of this
technique, but its effectiveness for treating heart failure, especially in the
long term, is still under discussion. Neither of these cell types can
differentiate into cardiomyocytes; rather, they improve the failing heart
mainly by the paracrine effects of some cytokines, such as Hepatocyte growth
factor (HGF) and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Thus, many
researchers have a great interest in stem cells, which exist in bone marrow,
circulating blood, atrium, and adipose tissue, and can differentiate into cardiomyocytes.
Although several stem cells with the potential to differentiate into various
cell types have been reported, few can differentiate into cardiomyocytes.
Moreover, beating cells that can demonstrate synchronized contraction with
native cardiomyocytes are critical for the complete repair of severe heart
failure. Therefore, stem cells with a high differentiation capacity should be
explored for the goal of completely repairing severely damaged myocardium. In
this review, we summarize the clinical protocols and basic experiments for
cellular cardiomyoplasty using bone marrow cells, myoblasts, and other stem
To estimate seismic damage of structures under strong motions is very important to know true safety of structures. However, we have to deal with very small failure probability issue to investigate quantitatively. If we use standard MCS (Monte Calro Simulation) to discuss failure probability, e.g., 1 × 10-6 order, since we have to execute nonlinear dynamic response analyses of approximate 107 times, it is not realistic. Recently, a subset simulation, which reduces the computation time by replacing small failure probability into the product of conditional failure probabilities, was proposed. In this study, the subset simulation is applied to estimate failure probability of an actual reinforced concrete building with 11 stories, and discuss the safety of the structure by checking with design criteria.
spin-magnetic moment of the electron is revisited. In the form of the
relativistic quantum mechanics, we calculate the magnetic moment of Dirac
electron with no orbital angular-momentum. It is inferred that obtained
magnetic moment may be the spin-magnetic moment, because it is never due to
orbital motion. A transition current flowing from a positive energy state to a
negative energy state in Dirac Sea is found. Application to the band structure
of semiconductor is suggested.