Abstract:
To determine critical host factors involved in HIV-1 replication, a dominant effector genetics approach was developed to reveal signaling pathways on which HIV-1 depends for replication. A large library of short peptide aptamers was expressed via retroviral delivery in T cells. Peptides that interfered with T cell activation-dependent processes that might support HIV-1 replication were identified. One of the selected peptides altered signaling, lead to a difference in T cell activation status, and inhibited HIV-1 replication. The target of the peptide was JAB1/CSN5, a component of the signalosome complex. JAB1 expression overcame the inhibition of HIV-1 replication in the presence of peptide and also promoted HIV-1 replication in activated primary CD4+ T cells. This peptide blocked physiological release of JAB1 from the accessory T cell surface protein LFA-1, downstream AP-1 dependent events, NFAT activation, and HIV-1 replication. Thus, genetic selection for intracellular aptamer inhibitors of host cell processes proximal to signals at the immunological synapse of T cells can define unique mechanisms important to HIV-1 replication.

Abstract:
To identify critical host factors necessary for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication, large libraries of short-peptide-aptamers were expressed retrovirally. The target of one inhibitor peptide, Pep80, identified in this screen was determined to be Snapin, a protein associated with the soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complex that is critical for calcium-dependent exocytosis during neurotransmission. Pep80 inhibited Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and blocked downstream signaling by direct interruption of the association between Snapin and an intracellular calcium release channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR). NFAT signaling was preferentially abolished by Pep80. Expression of Snapin overcame Pep80-mediated inhibition of Ca2+/NFAT signaling and HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, Snapin induced HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells. Thus, through its interaction with RyR, Snapin is a critical regulator of Ca2+ signaling and T cell activation. Use of the genetically selected intracellular aptamer inhibitors allowed us to define unique mechanisms important to HIV-1 replication and T cell biology.

Abstract:
The structure of aqueous solutions of 1:1 salts (KCl, NaCl, KF,and CsI) near a hydrophobic surface is analysed using the angle-dependent integral equation theory. Water molecules are taken to be hard spheres imbedded with multipolar moments including terms up to octupole order, and hard spherical ions are immersed in this model water. The many-body interactions associated with molecular polarizability are treated at the self-consistent mean field level. The effects of cationic and anionic sizes and salt concentration in the bulk are discussed in detail. As the salt concentration increases, the layer of water molecules next to the surface becomes denser but its orientational order remains almost unchanged. The concentration of each ion at the surface can be drastically different from that in the bulk. Asa striking example, at sufficiently low salt concentrations, the concentration of I- is about 500 times higher than that of F- at the surface.

Abstract:
This is the first of a series of papers on a systematic application of the NRQED bound state theory of Caswell and Lepage to higher-order radiative corrections to the hyperfine structure of the muonium ground state. This paper describes the calculation of the $\alpha^2 (Z\alpha)$ radiative correction. Our result for the complete $\alpha^2 (Z\alpha)$ correction is 0.424(4) kHz, which reduces the theoretical uncertainty significantly. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical evaluation of the nonlogarithmic part of the $\alpha (Z\alpha )^2$ term and logarithmic terms of order $\alpha^4$.

Abstract:
Terms contributing to the hyperfine structure of the muonium ground state at the level of few tenths of kHz have been evaluated. The $\alpha^2 (Z\alpha)$ radiative correction has been calculated numerically to the precision of 0.02 kHz. Leading $\ln (Z\alpha )$ terms of order $\alpha^{4-n} (Z\alpha)^n , n=1,2,3,$ and some relativistic corrections have been evaluated analytically. The theoretical uncertainty is now reduced to 0.17 kHz. At present, however, it is not possible to test QED to this precision because of the 1.34 kHz uncertainty due to the muon mass.

Abstract:
This is the second of a series of papers on the radiative corrections of order $\alpha^2 (Z\alpha)$, $\alpha (Z\alpha )^2$, and various logarithmic terms of order $\alpha^4$, to the hyperfine structure of the muonium ground state. This paper deals with the $\alpha (Z\alpha)^2$ correction. Based on the NRQED bound state theory, we isolated the term of order $\alpha(Z\alpha)^2$ exactly. Our result $+16.904 2 (11) \alpha(Z\alpha)^2 E_F / \pi$ for the non-logarithmic part is consistent with the $\alpha (Z\alpha )^2$ part of Sapirstein's calculation and the recent result of Pachucki, and reduces the numerical uncertainty in the $\alpha (Z\alpha)^2$ term by two orders of magnitude.

Abstract:
The pseudoscalar pole contribution is the dominant source of the $ {\cal O}(\alpha^3) $ hadronic light-by-light scattering effect in muon $g - 2$. We have examined this contribution taking account of the off-shell structure of the pseudoscalar-photon-photon anomaly vertex deduced from available experimental data. Our work leads to an improved estimate, $ -79.2 (15.4) \times 10^{-11}$, for the total hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon $g - 2$.

Abstract:
The contribution of the $\alpha^3$ single electron-loop vacuum-polarization diagrams to the Lamb shift of the muonic hydrogen has been evaluated recently by two independent methods. One uses the exact parametric representation of the vacuum-polarization function while the other relies on the Pad\'{e} approximation method. High precision of these values offers an opportunity to examine the reliability of the Monte-Carlo integration as well as that of the Pad\'{e} method. Our examination covers both muonic hydrogen atom and muon $g-2$. We tested them further for the cases involving two-loop vacuum polarization, where an exact analytic result is known. Our analysis justifies the result for the Lamb shift of the muonic hydrogen and also resolves the long-standing discrepancy between two previous evaluations of the muon $g-2$ value.

Abstract:
The sixth-order electron-loop vacuum-polarization contribution to the $2P_{1/2} - 2S_{1/2}$ Lamb shift of the muonic hydrogen ($\mu^{-} p^+$ bound state) has been evaluated numerically. Our result is 0.007608(1) meV. This eliminates the largest uncertainty in the theoretical calculation. Combined with the proposed precision measurement of the Lamb shift it will lead to a very precise determination of the proton charge radius.

Abstract:
AIM: To address the diagnostic value of the regular arrangement of collecting venules (RAC) among old age patients. METHODS: A total of 390 consecutive patients whose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was known and who received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, were retrospectively studied for the presence or absence of RAC as well as gastric mucosal atrophy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of RAC to detect normal gastric mucosa were assessed and were compared among two different age groups of patients. RESULTS: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of included patients (n = 390), was 62.9 ± 13 years. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of RAC to detect normal gastric mucosa were 91.7%, 66.1%, 18.8%, 99% and 68.1% respectively. Although the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of RAC among patients < 60 years (n = 139) was 94.7%, 71.2%, 46.2%, 98.1%and 76.1%, respectively, it was 80%, 64.3%, 5.1%, 93% and 64.6%, respectively, among patients ≥ 60 years (n = 251). Younger Patients (< 60 years), have highly significant rates of RAC sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy (P ≤ 0.001, ≤ 0.001 and ≤ 0.02, respectively). Older patients had highly significant rates of H. pylori infection and gastric mucosal atrophy (P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION: Although RAC is a valuable sign for real-time identification of normal gastric mucosa, its accuracy seems to be affected by the patient’s age.