Abstract:
A $\mathbb Q$-conic bundle is a proper morphism from a threefold with only terminal singularities to a normal surface such that fibers are connected and the anti-canonical divisor is relatively ample. We study the structure of $\mathbb Q$-conic bundles near their singular fibers. One corollary to our main results is that the base surface of every $\mathbb Q$-conic bundle has only Du Val singularities of type A (a positive solution of a conjecture by Iskovskikh). We obtain the complete classification of $\mathbb Q$-conic bundles under the additional assumption that the singular fiber is irreducible and the base surface is singular.

Abstract:
A $\mathbb Q$-conic bundle germ is a proper morphism from a threefold with only terminal singularities to the germ $(Z \ni o)$ of a normal surface such that fibers are connected and the anti-canonical divisor is relatively ample. We obtain the complete classification of $\mathbb Q$-conic bundle germs when the base surface germ is singular. This is a generalization of our previous paper math/0603736, which further assumed that the fiber over $o$ is irreducible.

Abstract:
Let $(X,C)$ be a germ of a threefold $X$ with terminal singularities along an irreducible reduced complete curve $C$ with a contraction $f: (X,C)\to (Z,o)$ such that $C=f^{-1}(o)_{\red}$ and $-K_X$ is ample. Assume that a general member $F\in |-K_X|$ meets $C$ only at one point $P$ and furthermore $(F,P)$ is Du Val of type A if index$(X,P)=4$. We classify all such germs in terms of a general member $H\in |O_X|$ containing $C$.

Abstract:
We prove that a terminal three-dimensional del Pezzo fibration has no fibers of multiplicity $\ge 6$. We also obtain a rough classification possible configurations of singular points on multiple fibers and give some examples.

Abstract:
A Q-conic bundle germ is a proper morphism from a threefold with only terminal singularities to the germ $(Z \ni o)$ of a normal surface such that fibers are connected and the anti-canonical divisor is relatively ample. Building upon our previous paper [math/0603736], we prove the existence of a Du Val anti-canonical member under the assumption that the central fiber is irreducible.

Abstract:
We show that if a flat group scheme acts properly, with finite stabilizers, on an algebraic space, then a quotient exists as a separated algebraic space. More generally we show any flat groupid for which the family of stabilizers is finite has a uniform geometric, uniform categorical quotient in the category of algebraic spaces. Our argument is elementary and essentially self contained.

Abstract:
Let $(X,C)$ be a germ of a threefold $X$ with terminal singularities along an irreducible reduced complete curve $C$ with a contraction $f: (X,C)\to (Z,o)$ such that $C=f^{-1}(o)_{red}$ and $-K_X$ is ample. Assume that $(X,C)$ contains a point of type (IC) or (IIB). We complete the classification of such germs in terms of a general member $H\in |\mathcal O_X|$ containing $C$.

Abstract:
We study a way of q-deformation of the bi-local system, the two particle system bounded by a relativistic harmonic oscillator type of potential, from both points of view of mass spectra and the behavior of scattering amplitudes. In our formulation, the deformation is done so that P^2, the square of center of mass momentum, enters into the deformation parameters of relative coordinates. As a result, the wave equation of the bi-local system becomes nonlinear with respect to P^2; then, the propagator of the bi-local system suffers significant change so as to get a convergent self energy to the second order. The study is also made on the covariant q-deformation in four dimensional spacetime.

Abstract:
We study a way of $q$-deformation of the bi-local system, the two particle system bounded by a relativistic harmonic oscillator type of potential, from both points of view of mass spectra and the behavior of scattering amplitudes. In our formulation, the deformation is done so that $P^2$, the square of center of mass momentum, enters into the deformation parameters of relative coordinates. As a result, the wave equation of the bi-local system becomes nonlinear with respect to $P^2$; then, the propagator of the bi-local system suffers significant change so as to get a convergent self energy to the second order. The study is also made on the covariant $q$-deformation in four dimensional spacetime.

Social comparison
experiments in two different social conditions, competing between friends and between
strangers, were carried out with 88 Japanese male undergraduates. Participants
were asked to come to the laboratory in friend pairs to participate in the
experiment. Two pairs were randomly combined for each experimental session. In
the Between-Friends condition, one of the two pairs solved 20 anagrams
competitively while the other pair observed them. In the Between-Strangers
condition, one performer and one observer were randomly chosen in each pair and
the performers solved anagram tasks competitively. As in our previous study,
the anagram tasks were presented utilizing a presentation trick so that one performer-and-observer
group viewed easier anagrams than the other group without their noticing the difference.
As intended, those who viewed the easier anagrams outperformed the others,
becoming winners in all sessions. No participants noticed the trick. After the
task, all four participants rated the ability of the two performers including
themselves. Their ability ratings showed that they tended to evaluate their own
ability modestly. Even winners consistently rated themselves lower than the
others rated them. Two possible explanations of why Japanese participants made
such modest responses were presented and discussed.