Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Background: In Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (MWS), vomiting causes the mucous membrane and submucosa near the esophagogastric mucosal junction to tear and bleed. Thus, MWS can arise after heavy drinking and as a complication of endoscopic upper gastrointestinal examinations or procedures. However, there has been no report of MWS secondary to upper gastrointestinal bleeding thus far. Case Subjects: Of 79 MWS cases over a 10-year period from 2002 to 2011, we identified and studied 6 cases, in which MWS was probably caused by another lesion causing upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Results: There were 2 cases, each of gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers, and varicose veins. In 3 cases, MWS was discovered during treatment of the primary lesion and was simultaneously treated. In the other 3 cases, patients were treated for MWS according to endoscopic diagnosis, and the primary lesion was overlooked; in these cases, the primary lesion was identified and treated after the bleeding recurred. One patient with cirrhosis died of hepatic failure. Conclusion: Care should be taken when dealing with MWS because it can occur as a result of vomiting caused by hematemesis or as a complication of endoscopic examination and treatment. When assessing MWS, other hemorrhagic lesions may be overlooked.
in the extendibility are growing after the introduction of the LPP (Laser
Produced Plasma) EUV source technology in the semiconductor industry, towards
higher average power and shorter wavelength, based on the basic architecture of
the established LPP EUV source technology. It is discussed in this article that
the power scaling of the 13.5nm wavelength source is essentially possible by a
slight increase of the driving laser power, CE (Conversion Efficiency) and EUV
collection efficiency by some introduction of novel component technologies.
Extension of the EUV wavelength towards BEUV (Beyond EUV), namely 6.x nm is
discussed based on the general rule of the UTA (Unresolved Transition Arrays)
of high Z ions, and development of multilayer mirrors in this particular
wavelength region. Technical difficulties are evaluated for the extension of
the LPP source technology by considering the narrower mirror bandwidth and
higher melting temperature of the candidate plasma materials. Alternative approach
based on the superconducting FEL is evaluated in comparison with the LPP source
technology for the future solution.