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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 400801 matches for " Sheree M. Schrager "
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Misuse of prescription and illicit drugs among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York
Stephen E. Lankenau,Sheree M. Schrager,Karol Silva,Alex Kecojevic
Journal of Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/jphr.2012.e6
Abstract: Background. Prescription drug misuse among young adults is increasingly viewed as a public health concern, yet most research has focused on student populations and excluded high-risk groups. Furthermore, research on populations who report recent prescription drug misuse is limited. This study examined patterns of prescription drug misuse among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles (LA) and New York (NY), which represent different local markets for illicit and prescription drugs. Design and Methods. Between 2009 and 2011, 596 young adults (16 to 25 years old) who had misused prescription drugs within the past 90 days were interviewed in Los Angeles and New York. Sampling was stratified to enroll three groups of high-risk young adults: injection drug users (IDUs); homeless persons; and polydrug users. Results. In both sites, lifetime history of receiving a prescription for an opioid, tranquilizer, or stimulant was high and commonly preceded misuse. Moreover, initiation of opioids occurred before heroin and initiation of prescription stimulants happened prior to illicit stimulants. NY participants more frequently misused oxycodone, heroin, and cocaine, and LA participants more frequently misused codeine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Combining prescription and illicit drugs during drug using events was commonly reported in both sites. Opioids and tranquilizers were used as substitutes for other drugs, e.g., heroin, when these drugs were not available. Conclusion. Patterns of drug use among high-risk young adults in Los Angeles and New York appear to be linked to differences in local markets in each city for illicit drugs and diverted prescription drugs.
Correlates and Consequences of Opioid Misuse among High-Risk Young Adults
Sheree M. Schrager,Aleksandar Kecojevic,Karol Silva,Jennifer Jackson Bloom,Ellen Iverson,Stephen E. Lankenau
Journal of Addiction , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/156954
Abstract: Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18–25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16–25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse, recency of misuse, and alternate modes of administration within the past 12 months, 3 months, and 30 days. Results. Four latent classes emerged that were differentially associated with heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use, tranquilizer misuse, daily opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal. Alternate modes of administering opioids were associated with increased risk for these outcomes. Sociodemographic factors, homelessness, prescription history, and history of parental drug use were significantly associated with riskier opioid misuse trajectories. Conclusion. Young adults who reported more debilitating experiences as children and adolescents misused opioids longer and engaged in higher risk alternate modes of administering opioids. Data on decisions both to use and to alter a drug’s form can be combined to describe patterns of misuse over time and predict important risk behaviors. 1. Introduction Over the past decade, prescription drug misuse has increased significantly in the U.S. [1, 2] and is most prevalent among young adults 18 to 25 years of age [2, 3]. Prescription opioids, such as hydrocodone and oxycodone, are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults [2]. Prescription opioids are a particularly important public health concern since opioid misuse is associated with a range of negative health outcomes, including injection drug use [4], drug dependence [2, 5], and fatal overdose [6, 7]. Prescription opioid trajectories among young adults begin with initiation into misuse [8] and include various patterns of misuse over a period of years [9, 10]. Features of opioid use trajectories, including duration of misuse and mode of administration, have been linked to negative outcomes among young adults. Individuals who initiate opioid misuse earlier in their lives or have misused opioids for several years have a greater likelihood of developing a substance abuse disorder [11, 12]. Misusing opioids for a period of years has been linked to transitioning to heroin among young injection drug users (IDUs) [8]. Among adults, a longer duration
The Never-Ending, Ever-After Story: Narrative, Healing, and Wholeness
Sheree Fitch
Narrative Works , 2011,
Oral health and social and emotional well-being in a birth cohort of Aboriginal Australian young adults
Lisa M Jamieson, Yin C Paradies, Wendy Gunthorpe, Sheree J Cairney, Susan M Sayers
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-656
Abstract: Data were collected on five validated domains of social and emotional well-being: anxiety, resilience, depression, suicide and overall mental health. Independent variables included socio-demographics, dental health behaviour, dental disease experience, oral health-related quality of life, substance use, racial discrimination and cultural knowledge.After adjusting for other covariates, poor oral health-related items were associated with each of the social and emotional well-being domains. Specifically, anxiety was associated with being female, having one or more decayed teeth and racial discrimination. Resilience was associated with being male, having a job, owning a toothbrush, having one or more filled teeth and knowing a lot about Indigenous culture; while being female, having experienced dental pain in the past year, use of alcohol, use of marijuana and racial discrimination were associated with depression. Suicide was associated with being female, having experience of untreated dental decay and racial discrimination; while being female, having experience of dental disease in one or more teeth, being dissatisfied about dental appearance and racial discrimination were associated with poor mental health.The results suggest there may be value in including oral health-related initiatives when exploring the role of physical conditions on Indigenous social and emotional well-being.In the Indigenous Australian context, social and emotional well-being is a broad concept reflecting a holistic understanding of life and health. It includes mental health, as well as cultural, spiritual and social well-being [1]. The concept also attempts to encompass the impact of grief and trauma through colonisation, separation from families, and loss of land and culture on Indigenous Australians [2]. The social and emotional well-being of many Indigenous Australians is poor, for example, in the 2004-05 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health survey, Indigenous Australians we
Parental Perspectives of a 4-Week Family-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Children with Obesity
Erin S. Pearson,Jennifer D. Irwin,Shauna M. Burke,Sheree Shapiro
Global Journal of Health Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n2p111
Abstract: Objectives: The childhood obesity epidemic is now recognized as one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Community-based behaviour modification treatment programs involving both children and their families are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of parents whose children participated in the Children’s Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): a 4-week lifestyle program delivered as a day-camp for obese children at risk for type II diabetes and their families. Parents were required to attend four half-day education sessions during the intervention period. Methods: Seven focus groups were conducted immediately following the 4-week interventions offered in August 2008 and 2009. The perspectives of 38 parents representing 32 children aged 8-14 with obesity (i.e., body mass index > the 95th percentile) were shared. Results: Overall, parents were pleased with the impact of the program and proud of their children’s accomplishments (e.g., increased physical activity levels, enhanced self-esteem, weight loss). Several facilitators to success (e.g., social support; a positive environment) and barriers to its maintenance (e.g., time management; unsupportive family members) were identified, and recommendations were made for future programs. Although parents found the half-day sessions valuable, post-programmatic bi-monthly booster session adherence declined over the one-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Delivered as a 4-week day-camp, C.H.A.M.P. represents a unique approach to the treatment of childhood obesity. Future family-based interventions should consider avenues for intensifying the parental program component whilst employing strategies to promote parental adherence in service of enhancing long-term sustainability of health behaviour changes.
Predictive Accuracy of 29-Comorbidity Index for In-Hospital Deaths in US Adult Hospitalizations with a Diagnosis of Venous Thromboembolism
James Tsai, Karon Abe, Sheree L. Boulet, Michele G. Beckman, W. Craig Hooper, Althea M. Grant
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070061
Abstract: Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a significant source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. By analyzing data of the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), we evaluated the predictive accuracy of the AHRQ’s 29-comorbidity index with in-hospital death among US adult hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VTE. Methods We assessed the case-fatality and prevalence of comorbidities among a sample of 153,518 adult hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VTE that comprised 87,605 DVTs and 65,913 PEs (with and without DVT). We estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with multivariable logistic regression models by using comorbidities as predictors and status of in-hospital death as an outcome variable. We assessed the c-statistics for the predictive accuracy of the logistic regression models. Results In 2010, approximately 41,944 in-hospital deaths (20,212 with DVT and 21,732 with PE) occurred among 770,137 hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VTE. When compared separately to hospitalizations with VTE, DVT, or PE that had no corresponding comorbidities, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, coagulopathy, liver disease, lymphoma, fluid and electrolyte disorders, metastatic cancer, other neurological disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, pulmonary circulation disorders, renal failure, solid tumor without metastasis, and weight loss were positively and independently associated with 10%?125% increased likelihoods of in-hospital death. The c-statistic values ranged from 0.776 to 0.802. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that comorbidity was associated independently with risk of death among hospitalizations with VTE and among hospitalizations with DVT or PE. The AHRQ 29-comorbidity index provides acceptable to excellent predictive accuracy for in-hospital deaths among adult hospitalizations with VTE and among those with DVT or PE.
Re-Imagining Indigenous Education for Health, Wellbeing and Sustainable Development in Remote Australia  [PDF]
Rosalie Schultz, Tammy Abbott, Jessica Yamaguchi, Sheree Cairney
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.916222
Abstract: In Australia both Indigenous communities and governments are concerned at the educational outcomes of Indigenous children, especially children in remote regions. However, there are divergent visions of Indigenous education. For Indigenous communities, education embraces culture and contributes to wellbeing, the focus of our research, while for governments, educational goals comprise school attendance, English literacy and completion of year 12. Our team of Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers explored wellbeing for Indigenous people in remote Australia through focus groups and interviews. Grounded analysis showed how research participants would like more Indigenous education for their children. Their vision for education includes transmission of Indigenous knowledge and skills in art, culture, history, land and sea management, and literacy in both English and Indigenous languages. Remote Indigenous communities hold under-utilised resources and strengths for education, and Indigenous people’s knowledge is needed, particularly in conservation and land and sea management. Research participants feel thwarted by education policies which require competition for funding and segregation of services. Re-imagining education from the perspectives of Indigenous communities offers opportunities to enhance education, together with employment, health and wellbeing, and strengthen Indigenous languages, knowledge and skills. These are important for both overcoming Indigenous disadvantage and for Australia to reach its commitments to conservation and sustainable development goals.
The use of group dynamics strategies to enhance cohesion in a lifestyle intervention program for obese children
Luc J Martin, Shauna M Burke, Sheree Shapiro, Albert V Carron, Jennifer D Irwin, Robert Petrella, Harry Prapavessis, Kevin Shoemaker
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-277
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of the intervention for obese children and their families. Objectives of the intervention included the modification of health behaviors and cohesion levels through the use of group dynamics strategies. To date, a total of 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls, mean age = 10.5) and their families have completed the intervention (during the month of August 2008). Physiological and psychological outcomes were assessed throughout the 4-week intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up periods.It is believed that the information provided will help researchers and health professionals develop similar obesity treatment interventions through the use of evidence-based group dynamics strategies. There is also a need for continued research in this area, and it is our hope that the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.) will provide a strong base from which others may build.Canadian children are becoming progressively overweight and obese. In 2004, 26% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 17 were either obese or overweight [1]. The prevalence of overweight youth ages 17 and under has doubled in the last 25 years, while obesity alone has tripled [1]. These rising trends are alarming for at least two reasons. One is that they are associated with numerous detrimental physical and psychosocial outcomes including, but not limited to, increased risk of cardiovascular disease [2], hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and social discrimination [3]. A second is the likelihood that childhood obesity will continue into adulthood and increase the risk of the onset of type II diabetes [4,5]. In order to combat these potential complications, it is extremely important to intervene at an early age rather than allow the problem to continue into adulthood. During childhood, lifestyle patterns are not as well established as compared to adults. Children may be more open to behavior change and researchers an
Native Environment Modulates Leaf Size and Response to Simulated Foliar Shade across Wild Tomato Species
Daniel H. Chitwood, Lauren R. Headland, Daniele L. Filiault, Ravi Kumar, José M. Jiménez-Gómez, Amanda V. Schrager, Daniel S. Park, Jie Peng, Neelima R. Sinha, Julin N. Maloof
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029570
Abstract: The laminae of leaves optimize photosynthetic rates by serving as a platform for both light capture and gas exchange, while minimizing water losses associated with thermoregulation and transpiration. Many have speculated that plants maximize photosynthetic output and minimize associated costs through leaf size, complexity, and shape, but a unifying theory linking the plethora of observed leaf forms with the environment remains elusive. Additionally, the leaf itself is a plastic structure, responsive to its surroundings, further complicating the relationship. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying angiosperm leaf development, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity and selective pressures converge to create the diversity of leaf shapes and sizes across lineages. Here, we use wild tomato accessions, collected from locales with diverse levels of foliar shade, temperature, and precipitation, as a model to assay the extent of shade avoidance in leaf traits and the degree to which these leaf traits correlate with environmental factors. We find that leaf size is correlated with measures of foliar shade across the wild tomato species sampled and that leaf size and serration correlate in a species-dependent fashion with temperature and precipitation. We use far-red induced changes in leaf length as a proxy measure of the shade avoidance response, and find that shade avoidance in leaves negatively correlates with the level of foliar shade recorded at the point of origin of an accession. The direction and magnitude of these correlations varies across the leaf series, suggesting that heterochronic and/or ontogenic programs are a mechanism by which selective pressures can alter leaf size and form. This study highlights the value of wild tomato accessions for studies of both morphological and light-regulated development of compound leaves, and promises to be useful in the future identification of genes regulating potentially adaptive plastic leaf traits.
Prevalence of hallux valgus in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Sheree Nix, Michelle Smith, Bill Vicenzino
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-3-21
Abstract: Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CINAHL) and reference lists of included papers were searched to June 2009 for papers on HV prevalence without language restriction. MeSH terms and keywords were used relating to HV or bunions, prevalence and various synonyms. Included studies were surveys reporting original data for prevalence of HV or bunions in healthy populations of any age group. Surveys reporting prevalence data grouped with other foot deformities and in specific disease groups (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes) were excluded. Two independent investigators quality rated all included papers on the Epidemiological Appraisal Instrument. Data on raw prevalence, population studied and methodology were extracted. Prevalence proportions and the standard error were calculated, and meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model.A total of 78 papers reporting results of 76 surveys (total 496,957 participants) were included and grouped by study population for meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence estimates for HV were 23% in adults aged 18-65 years (CI: 16.3 to 29.6) and 35.7% in elderly people aged over 65 years (CI: 29.5 to 42.0). Prevalence increased with age and was higher in females [30% (CI: 22 to 38)] compared to males [13% (CI: 9 to 17)]. Potential sources of bias were sampling method, study quality and method of HV diagnosis.Notwithstanding the wide variation in estimates, it is evident that HV is prevalent; more so in females and with increasing age. Methodological quality issues need to be addressed in interpreting reports in the literature and in future research.Hallux valgus (HV) is one of the most common chronic foot complaints presenting to foot and ankle specialists [1], occurring when the hallux deviates laterally towards the other toes, and the first metatarsal head becomes prominent medially [2]. As well as being a major contributor to the costs for forefoot surgery, HV has been linked to functional disability, including foot pain [3],
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