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Visual, Auditory and Cross Modal Lexical Decision: A Comparison between Dyslexic and Typical Readers  [PDF]
Shelley Shaul
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.516191
Abstract: This study examined the differences in processing between typical and dyslexic readers in a lexical decision task in different modalities (visual, auditory, and cross modality). In general, dyslexics exhibited slower reaction times and made more mistakes when performing the task. The biggest gap between the two groups of readers was found on the visual task. However, the dyslexics benefited from the cross modality presentation, with differences between the two groups minimized. The results of this study indicate that the slowness characteristic of dyslexics’ stems mainly from slow processing of visual linguistic information and that supporting both processing systems relevant to reading will assist inter-sensory integration and may ease the word decoding process among dyslexics.
The Differences in Semantic Processing of Pictures and Words between Dyslexic and Typical-Reading University Students  [PDF]
Shelley Shaul, Ziva Rom
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.102018
Abstract: The present study compared the semantic processing of pictures and words by dyslexics to that of typical readers utilizing the electro-physiological (ERP) technique during a semantic categorization decision task. ERPs of 40 university students, 20 typical readers and 20 dyslexic readers were recorded while they participated in a categorization decision task. The subjects were presented with two kinds of stimuli—words and pictures. Results revealed longer reaction times in response to words as compared to pictures in both groups. Electrophysiological measures revealed differences in amplitudes and latencies of ERP components in addition to differences in the mean activity. The results illustrated that the differences between processing words and processing pictures were manifested in timing and in the brain areas involved in the tasks. It also illustrated that although dyslexic and typical readers displayed equal ability to read and understand familiar words, dyslexics could not perform as quickly as typical readers. The semantic domain may be one of the compensatory mechanisms which help compensated dyslexic readers reach and succeed in the higher education system.
Legal liabilities in research: early lessons from North America
Randi Zlotnik Shaul, Shelley Birenbaum, Megan Evans
BMC Medical Ethics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-6-4
Abstract: The legal risks associated with health research involving human subjects have been highlighted recently by a number of lawsuits launched against those involved in conducting and evaluating the research [1]. Some of these cases have been fully addressed by the legal system, resulting in judgments that provide some guidance. The vast majority of cases have either settled before going to trial, or have not yet been addressed by the courts, leaving us to wonder what might have been and what guidance future cases may bring. What is striking about the lawsuits that have been commenced is the broad range of individuals/institutions that are named as defendants and the broad range of allegations that are made.A review of recent Canadian and American cases demonstrates that in commencing lawsuits over alleged research misconduct, plaintiffs cast a wide net, naming as defendants anyone who had anything to do with the research in question. Named defendants have included the researchers, the research ethics committee/board/institutional review board (REC) that approved the research and its individual members, as well as bioethicists who consulted on the research project.For example, in Gelsinger v. Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania [2], an eighteen year-old who had volunteered to participate in a corrective gene study died during the course of the study. In that case, the trustees of the university and two hospitals affiliated with the research, the investigators, the company that sponsored the research, the former medical school dean and a bioethicist, were all originally named as defendants on the bases (among others) of wrongful death, assault and battery linked to a lack of informed consent, and common law fraud/misrepresentation linked to the informed consent process. The case settled for an undisclosed amount [3].In Robertson v. McGee [4], the REC had approved a protocol for a Phase I study of a cancer vaccine. Many of the patients who enrolled in the study had a
Understanding Good Coping: A Submarine Crew Coping with Extreme Environmental Conditions  [PDF]
Shaul Kimhi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29145
Abstract: The present study is based on in-depth interviews with 12 Israeli submarine crew members. The study examines various aspects of coping with submarine service and its unique characteristics from the crew members’ points of view. Content analysis reveals the following salient themes: First, positive perception of submarine service: positive thinking, optimism and sense of humor, accompanied by cynicism. Second, the submarine team is characterized by high moral standards, high team spirit and a sense of the importance of the service. Third, social relationships are characterized by avoidance of conflicts, while maintaining a good atmosphere and high social cohesion. Fourth, crew members perceived separation from home, friends and daily life as the most difficult aspects to deal with. Fifth, they perceived the submarine as dangerous place but reduced aspects of danger by developing a sense of trust in their submarine and in their ability to control potential dangers. Study results are discussed in light of relevant theories. This study is unique in that it was a rare opportunity to get a glimpse into the unknown world of an Israeli submarine crew which is mostly secret and not open to researchers.
On the Impermissibility of Telling Misleading Truths in Kantian Ethics  [PDF]
Cameron Shelley
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22013
Abstract: Sandel (2009) has recently revisited the issue of the moral permissibility of telling misleading truths in a Kantian ethical framework. His defense of its permissibility relies on assimilating it to simple truth telling, and discounting its relationship with simple lying. This article presents a refutation of Sandel’s case. It is argued that comparison of misleading truths with telling truths or lies is inconclusive. Instead, comparison with telling of leading truths is appropriate. With this comparison in view, it is clear that telling misleading truths is not consistent with the Categorical Imperative, meaning that they are not morally permissible from a Kantian perspective.
The Impact of Atmospheric Phenomena on South Korean Students’ Engagement at School through the Mediating Effect of the Students’ Health  [PDF]
Shelley Choi
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.83020
Abstract: This study examined how South Korea’s regular significant atmospheric phenomena, the yellow dust and the monsoon, affected students’ health and academic engagement at school. Five hundred middle and high school students were surveyed to figure out the atmospheric impacts on the students’ lives. The results of this study found that the severity of yellow dust and monsoon conditions experienced by the students negatively influenced their academic engagement. However, the variable of students’ concerns about their health was shown to have a mediating effect between the intensity of yellow dust and the level of academic engagement. These results indicated the need to alleviate the yellow dust and monsoon atmospheric phenomena and their effects at both the school and national levels in order to improve the academic engagement of students in South Korea.
“Smart” Surveillance of Dusty Behavior: Illuminating the Relationship between Particulate Matter and the Atmosphere  [PDF]
Shelley Choi
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2018.73008
Abstract: Although large amounts of research have been completed to find the relationship between particulate matter and climate change, they have still proven to be inadequate. Efforts to lay the foundations for understanding atmospheric chemical reactions have been repeatedly foiled by both the size and complexity of the task, which require more than the effort of a handful of researchers. Since the development of advanced physical models for dust behavior is projected to take years, what if laypeople could dramatically expedite this process by using their mobile devices as measurement tools? With relatively little effort by many individuals, previously unknown information about the earth’s atmosphere may at last become accessible thanks to recent advances in artificial intelligence. However, there are potential obstacles. Even if all technical problems are resolved, viable plans for battling particulate matter pollution will likely need to be accompanied by environmental policies. While technological breakthroughs give reason to hope for a brighter future, the resolution of global issues requires both grassroots changes and global efforts.
Conscripted without Induction Order: Wives of Former Combat Veterans with PTSD Speak  [PDF]
Shaul Kimhi, Hadas Doron
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43029

This study examines the lives of wives who are living with former combat soldiers with chronic PTSD, from the subjective perspective of the wives themselves. Structured interviews with 20 wives indicated the following main results: 1) About 2/3 of the wives reported that, for a long time, they did not know what the problem with their husband was and had no idea that it was connected to his military experience. 2) All of the wives described many negative effects of their husband’s situation on daily family functioning. In most cases, the wives described their husbands as handicapped individuals who could do very few things that are usually associated with normal family functioning. 3) Most wives described their husbands as “absent-present”: The husband was present physically but would often detach himself from everyone around him. 4) Most wives reported suffering from anxieties of all kinds and other symptoms, which also characterized their husbands. Study results are discussed in light of relevant theories.

Tribal Values and Norms in Mongolia and Their Effect on Women’s Status  [PDF]
Shaul M. Gabbay
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.35017
Abstract: Roughly the size of Alaska, Mongolia is a landlocked country between Russia on its northern frontier and China on its southern border. With just over three million inhabitants, it is sparsely populated, with nearly half of the people living in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, and in other provincial centers. The tribal networks in Mongolia are the main tenants of social structural characteristics in the society. In this paper, the effect of tribal values and norms on family structures particularly with regards to women is delineated analyzed and discussed. The influence and similarity to Muslim cultural tribal structures in and outside of Mongolia are used in a comparative sociological meta analysis methodology.
Networks, Social Capital, and Social Liability: The Case of Pakistani ISI, the Taliban and the War against Terrorism  [PDF]
Shaul M. Gabbay
Social Networking (SN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2014.35027
Abstract: Pakistan is one of the most important players as well as a playground frontier of the global war on terrorism beginning from September 11 to the present. In this paper we delineate the complexities of the war against terrorism taking a social network approach. The paper argues that one of the main challenges for fighting terrorism in places such as Pakistan is the social network ties which exit between the different constituencies, sometimes constituencies which are seemingly on opposing sides. The paper uses social capital of organizations to map the capital and liabilities of strong and weak ties between the Pakistani intelligence service (ISI) and the Taliban and how they change over time.
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