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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 328065 matches for " Shelby S Yamamoto "
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The effects of zooprophylaxis and other mosquito control measures against malaria in Nouna, Burkina Faso
Shelby S Yamamoto, Valérie R Louis, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-283
Abstract: A matched, population-based case control study was carried out in the semi-urban region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. Surveys and mosquito captures were conducted for each participating household. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression and Pearson's product-moment correlations.In Nouna, Burkina Faso, the main types of reported mosquito control measures used included sleeping under bed nets (insecticide-treated and untreated) and burning mosquito coils. Most of the study households kept animals within the compound or house at night. Insecticide house sprays, donkeys, rabbits and pigs were significantly associated with a reduced risk of malaria only in univariate analyses.Given the conflicting results of the effects of zooprophylaxis from previous studies, other community-based preventive measures, such as bed nets, coils and insecticide house-spraying, may be of more benefit.Africa is particularly vulnerable to malaria for several reasons, including being exposed to the most severe form of the disease, having inadequate resources to bear the economic burden of the consequences and having to cope with the lack of proper infrastructure to effectively treat cases [1]. Hence, prevention of the disease becomes paramount. The use of individual methods of protection are particularly important, especially in areas lacking any formal mosquito control programmes, like Burkina Faso. Bed nets, window screens, house sprays, ceilings, closed eaves and in some cases, zooprophylaxis can reduce the risk of malaria [2-6]. The evaluation of the different types of mosquito control methods used by households may be used to aid in the development and promotion of preventive measures that can be more readily integrated into communities. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the reported use of different mosquito control methods among residents and their effects on the risk of malaria in the semi-urban area of Nouna, Burkina Faso.The study site of Nouna, Burkina Faso is loca
Functional Immunomics of the Squash Bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer) (Heteroptera: Coreidae)
Kent S. Shelby
Insects , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/insects4040712
Abstract: The Squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major piercing/sucking pest of cucurbits, causing extensive damage to plants and fruits, and transmitting phytopathogens. No genomic resources to facilitate field and laboratory studies of this pest were available; therefore the first de novo exome for this destructive pest was assembled. RNA was extracted from insects challenged with bacterial and fungal immunoelicitors, insects fed on different cucurbit species, and insects from all life stages from egg to adult. All treatments and replicates were separately barcoded for subsequent analyses, then pooled for sequencing in a single lane using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Over 211 million 100-base tags generated in this manner were trimmed, filtered, and cleaned, then assembled into a de novo reference transcriptome using the Broad Institute Trinity assembly algorithm. The assembly was annotated using NCBIx NR, BLAST2GO, KEGG and other databases. Of the >130,000 total assemblies 37,327 were annotated identifying the sequences of candidate gene silencing targets from immune, endocrine, reproductive, cuticle, and other physiological systems. Expression profiling of the adult immune response was accomplished by aligning the 100-base tags from each biological replicate from each treatment and controls to the annotated reference assembly of the A. tristis transcriptome.
Households' perception of climate change and human health risks: A community perspective
Md Aminul Haque, Shelby Yamamoto, Ahmad Malik, Rainer Sauerborn
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-1
Abstract: The study was a cross-sectional survey of respondents from two villages--one from the northern part and the other from the southern part of Bangladesh. A total of 450 households were selected randomly through multistage sampling completed a semi-structure questionnaire. This was supplemented with 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 15 key informant interviews (KIIs).Over 95 percent of the respondents reported that the heat during the summers had increased and 80.2 percent reported that rainfall had decreased, compared to their previous experiences. Approximately 65 percent reported that winters were warmer than in previous years but they still experienced very erratic and severe cold during the winter for about 5-7 days, which restricted their activities with very destructive effect on agricultural production, everyday life and the health of people. FGDs and KIIs also reported that overall winters were warmer. Eighty point two percent, 72.5 percent and 54.7 percent survey respondents perceived that the frequency of water, heat and cold related diseases/health problems, respectively, had increased compared to five to ten years ago. FGDs and KIIs respondents were also reported the same.Respondents had clear perceptions about changes in heat, cold and rainfall that had occurred over the last five to ten years. Local perceptions of climate variability (CV) included increased heat, overall warmer winters, reduced rainfall and fewer floods. The effects of CV were mostly negative in terms of means of living, human health, agriculture and overall livelihoods. Most local perceptions on CV are consistent with the evidence regarding the vulnerability of Bangladesh to CC. Such findings can be used to formulate appropriate sector programs and interventions. The systematic collection of such information will allow scientists, researchers and policy makers to design and implement appropriate adaptation strategies for CC in countries that are especially vulnerable.Weather and cli
RNA-Seq Study of Microbially Induced Hemocyte Transcripts from Larval Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Kent S. Shelby,Holly J. R. Popham
Insects , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/insects3030743
Abstract: Larvae of the tobacco budworm are major polyphagous pests throughout the Americas. Development of effective microbial biopesticides for this and related noctuid pests has been stymied by the natural resistance mediated innate immune response. Hemocytes play an early and central role in activating and coordinating immune responses to entomopathogens. To approach this problem we completed RNA-seq expression profiling of hemocytes collected from larvae following an in vivo challenge with bacterial and fungal cell wall components to elicit an immune response. A de novo exome assembly was constructed by combination of sequence tags from all treatments. Sequence tags from each treatment were aligned separately with the assembly to measure expression. The resulting table of differential expression had > 22,000 assemblies each with a distinct combination of annotation and expression. Within these assemblies > 1,400 were upregulated and > 1,500 downregulated by immune activation with bacteria or fungi. Orthologs to innate immune components of other insects were identified including pattern recognition, signal transduction pathways, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, melanization and coagulation. Additionally orthologs of components regulating hemocytic functions such as autophagy, apoptosis, phagocytosis and nodulation were identified. Associated cellular oxidative defenses and detoxification responses were identified providing a comprehensive snapshot of the early response to elicitation.
Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan
Ahmad Malik, Shelby Yamamoto, Aurélia Souares, Zeeshan Malik, Rainer Sauerborn
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-201
Abstract: A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural.Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians.Motivational determinants differed across different levels of care, sectors and genders. Nonetheless, the important motivators across setups in this study were mostly intrinsic and socio-cultural, which are difficult to affect while the demotivators were largely organizational. Many can be addressed even at the facility level such as less personal safety and poor working conditions. Thus, in resource limited settings a good strategic starting point could be small scale changes that may markedly improve physicians' motivation and subsequently the quality of health care.The wor
Analysis of tooth decay data in Japan using asymmetric statistical models
Yamamoto K, Tomizawa S
Open Access Medical Statistics , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAMS.S35009
Abstract: nalysis of tooth decay data in Japan using asymmetric statistical models Methodology (682) Total Article Views Authors: Yamamoto K, Tomizawa S Published Date November 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 61 - 64 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAMS.S35009 Received: 14 June 2012 Accepted: 12 September 2012 Published: 19 November 2012 Kouji Yamamoto,1 Sadao Tomizawa2 1Department of Medical Innovation, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda City, Chiba, Japan Background: The aim of the present paper was to develop two new asymmetry probability models to analyze data for tooth decay from 363 women and 349 men aged 18–39 years who visited a dental clinic in Sapporo City, Japan, from 2001 to 2005. Methods: We analyzed the probability relationship between grade of upper and lower tooth decay for men and women using the two new models, and tested goodness-of-fit for the models. Results: The probability that a woman's (man's) grade of lower tooth decay is i (i = 1,2) and her (his) grade of upper tooth decay is j(>i), (j = 2,3) is estimated to be at most 13.52 (10.23) times higher than the probability that the woman's (man's) grade of upper tooth decay is i and grade of lower tooth decay is j. Conclusion: From the data on tooth decay, decay of the upper teeth is worse than of the lower teeth in women and men, and the tendency becomes stronger as the numbers of decayed upper and lower teeth increase.
Analysis of tooth decay data in Japan using asymmetric statistical models
Yamamoto K,Tomizawa S
Open Access Medical Statistics , 2012,
Abstract: Kouji Yamamoto,1 Sadao Tomizawa21Department of Medical Innovation, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Information Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda City, Chiba, JapanBackground: The aim of the present paper was to develop two new asymmetry probability models to analyze data for tooth decay from 363 women and 349 men aged 18–39 years who visited a dental clinic in Sapporo City, Japan, from 2001 to 2005.Methods: We analyzed the probability relationship between grade of upper and lower tooth decay for men and women using the two new models, and tested goodness-of-fit for the models.Results: The probability that a woman's (man's) grade of lower tooth decay is i (i = 1,2) and her (his) grade of upper tooth decay is j(>i), (j = 2,3) is estimated to be at most 13.52 (10.23) times higher than the probability that the woman's (man's) grade of upper tooth decay is i and grade of lower tooth decay is j.Conclusion: From the data on tooth decay, decay of the upper teeth is worse than of the lower teeth in women and men, and the tendency becomes stronger as the numbers of decayed upper and lower teeth increase.Keywords: distance-proportional symmetry, asymmetry, square contingency table, teeth
Quantum Analysis of Rydberg Atom Cavity Detector for Dark Matter Axion Search
K. Yamamoto,S. Matsuki
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Quantum analysis is made on the dynamical system consisting of the cosmic axions, photons and Rydberg atoms which are interacting in the resonant cavity. The atomic motion in a continuous incident beam is taken into account properly in order to make a precise estimate of the efficiency of the Rydberg atom cavity detector for dark matter axion search.
Agency and Relationship Dissatisfaction Associated with Orthorexia Symptomatology  [PDF]
Crystal D. Oberle, Shelby L. Lipschuetz
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2018.83027
Abstract: This study explored whether orthorexia symptomatology is linked to gender-related personality traits and to levels of satisfaction in one’s romantic relationships. Undergraduate students (418 women, 98 men) completed an online survey with measures to assess orthorexia symptomatology, agency, unmitigated agency, communion, unmitigated communion, and relationship satisfaction. Orthorexia symptomatology was positively correlated with levels of agency (r = 0.18; p < 0.001), but it was unrelated to unmitigated agency (p = 0.51), communion (p = 0.76), unmitigated communion (p = 0.17), and relationship status (p = 0.99). Among the participants who were in a committed relationship, symptomatology was negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction (p = 0.01), and this correlation was most pronounced for those with higher levels of unmitigated agency (p = 0.01). Orthorexia is associated with the agency personality trait, indicative of one’s need to be independent and to achieve personal accomplishments. However, particularly for those individuals whose agency becomes unmitigated, characterized by selfishness and avoidance of others, orthorexia symptomatology predicts significant dissatisfaction in romantic relationships.
The Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Status (AKPS) scale: a revised scale for contemporary palliative care clinical practice [ISRCTN81117481]
Amy P Abernethy, Tania Shelby-James, Belinda S Fazekas, David Woods, David C Currow
BMC Palliative Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-684x-4-7
Abstract: Performance status was measured using all three scales for palliative care patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in South Australia. Care occurred in a range of settings. Survival was defined from enrollment to death.Ratings were collected at 1600 timepoints for 306 participants. The median score on all scales was 60. KPS and AKPS agreed in 87% of ratings; 79% of disagreements occurred within 1 level on the 11-level scales. KPS and TKPS agreed in 76% of ratings; 85% of disagreements occurred within one level. AKPS and TKPS agreed in 85% of ratings; 87% of disagreements were within one level. Strongest agreement occurred at the highest levels (70–90), with greatest disagreement at lower levels (≤40). Kappa coefficients for agreement were KPS-TKPS 0.71, KPS-AKPS 0.84, and AKPS-TKPS 0.82 (all p < 0.001). Spearman correlations with survival were KPS 0.26, TKPS 0.27 and AKPS 0.26 (all p < 0.001). AKPS was most predictive of survival at the lower range of the scale. All had longitudinal test-retest validity. Face validity was greatest for the AKPS.The AKPS is a useful modification of the KPS that is more appropriate for clinical settings that include multiple venues of care such as palliative care.Palliative care clinicians are increasingly using change in performance status as a flag for likelihood of need for services, timing of interventions, and as an outcome measurement for clinical programs and research [1-3]. The Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) has been used as an assessment tool for performance status in oncology since 1948 [4]. It is commonly regarded as the gold standard measurement of performance status in cancer[2,3]. The KPS scale assesses three dimensions of health status – activity, work and self-care – and can be administered by any healthcare professional for a quick assessment of general functioning and survival [5].The original KPS is an ordered categorical scale with 11 levels (Table 1). Extensive psychometric testing provides evidence o
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