Abstract:
Although measurement of intracranial pressure by noninvasive methods has been suggested, but mainly invasive methods are used for this purpose-Increase in episcleral venous pressure can be expected to result in a linear increase in intraocular pressure. Congested oculat veins with capillary leakage and hemorrhage are seen when the ICP is increased, thus theoretically measurement of intraocular pressure can be a procedure for estimation of the ICP. This study was performed to find whether there is andy relationship between intraocular pressure and ICP, so we used 12 albino rabbits in two divided groups. Our study was not designed to elucidate the mechanism of change but merely to record any changes observed. All measures except an increase in ICP were applied on the test group as well as on the control group. After general anesthesia with the combination of ketamin, rampune, and pentobarbital a burr hole was made in the lambda region of the skull and a cannula was placed in the subdural space. The ICP in the test group increased up to 15 mmHg and was constant throughout the experiment. Intraocular pressure was measured by Schiotz tonometers afte general anesthesia, after cannulation of the skull, and immediately after increasing the ICP which was repated in 15 minutes interval for 4 hours. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P:0.997) . results show that neither cannulation nor general anesthesia for 4 hours produce alteration in IOP in the control group nor increasing of the ICP to level of 15 mmHg produces any alteration in IOP on the test group.

Magnesium oxide (MgO) and bismuth(III) nitrate pentahydrate as highly effective catalysts which have catalyzed the three-component reaction of cyanoacetic acid hydrazide, aldehydes and malononitrile to prepare of the corresponding N-amino-2-pyridones. These catalysts are inexpensive and easily obtained, stable and storable, easily recycled and reused for several cycles with consistent activity.

Abstract:
Apoptosis of vascular cells, including pericytes and endothelial cells, contributes to disease pathogenesis in which vascular rarefaction plays a central role. Bim is a proapoptotic protein that modulates not only apoptosis but also cellular functions such as migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expression. Endothelial cells and pericytes each make a unique contribution to vascular formation and function although the details require further delineation. Here we set out to determine the cell autonomous impact of Bim expression on retinal endothelial cell and pericyte function using cells prepared from Bim deficient (Bim？/？) mice. Bim？/？ endothelial cells displayed an increased production of ECM proteins, proliferation, migration, adhesion, and VEGF expression but, a decreased eNOS expression and nitric oxide production. In contrast, pericyte proliferation decreased in the absence of Bim while migration, adhesion, and VEGF expression were increased. In addition, we demonstrated that the coculturing of either wild-type or Bim？/？ endothelial cells with Bim？/？ pericytes diminished their capillary morphogenesis. Thus, our data further emphasizes the importance of vascular cell autonomous regulatory mechanisms in modulation of vascular function. 1. Background Apoptosis facilitates the removal of unwanted cells during development and maintains tissue homeostasis. Bcl-2 family members influence apoptosis in either a positive or a negative fashion. Family members are classically grouped into three subclasses including one that inhibits apoptosis, a second that induces apoptosis and a third contains that family members, such as Bim, that only have a BH3 domain that binds antiapoptotic family members to promote apoptosis [1]. Bcl-2 exerts opposing effects with regards to apoptosis compared with Bim, consistent with their opposing effects on cell adhesion and migration [2]. The removal of a single allele of Bim is sufficient to prevent the degenerative disorders caused by Bcl-2 deficiency [3, 4]. Bim expression is also essential for apoptosis of a wide range of growth factor deprived cells [5], including endothelial cells and pericytes [6]. Therefore, improper modulation of apoptosis could impact the development and/or the pathogenesis of many diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Murine retinal vascular development proceeds after birth and is complete by postnatal day 21 (P21). Remodeling and pruning of the retinal vasculature continue until P42 [7, 8]. Pro- and anti-apoptotic factors regulate apoptosis during retinal vascular development,

Abstract:
Wireless ad hoc networks are usually composed of autonomous nodes, which are powered by batteries only. The energy-efficiency is perhaps one of the most important factors for each operation in terms of networks. Broadcast, for example, is one of the fundamental operations in modern telecom networks. In this paper a broadcast tree, which is rooted at a source and spans all the destination nodes, has been constructed in a way that the total transmission energy consumption is minimized. This paper describes two polynomial-time heuristics for the energy-efficient broadcasting in static ad hoc wireless networks. Both of the developed approaches are on the basis of a fuzzy greedy evaluation function, which prioritize the network nodes. According to the prioritized order of the nodes, each new node is selected for incorporation in the construction of a solution. Computational experiments indicate that our algorithms improve the well-known Broadcast Link-based Minimum Spanning Tree (BLiMST) and Broadcast Least-Unicast-cost (BLU) heuristics. It will be seen that the BLiMST and the BLU methods are a special case of our more general heuristics.

Abstract:
An ideal $I$ of a ring $R$ is square stable if $aR+bR=R$ with $a\in I$ and $b\in R$ implies that $a^2+by$ is invertible in $I$ for some $y\in I$. We prove that an exchange ideal $I$ of a ring $R$ is square stable if and only if for any $a\in I$, $a^2\ in J(R)$ implies that $a\in J(R)$, if and only if every regular element in $I$ is strongly regular.

Abstract:
We present some new conditions for a B$\acute{e}$zout ring to be an elementary divisor ring. We prove, in this note, that a B$\acute{e}$zout ring $R$ is feckly zero-adequate if and only if $R/J(R)$ is regular if and only if $R/J(R)$ is $\pi$-regular, and that every feckly zero-adequate ring is an elementary divisor ring. If $R$ has feckly adequate range 1, we prove that $R$ is an elementary divisor ring if and only if $R$ is a B$\acute{e}$zout ring. Many known results are thereby generalized to much wider class of rings, e.g. [4, Theorem 14], [5, Theorem 4], [8, Theorem 1.2.14], [10, Theorem 4] and [11, Theorem 7]. \vskip3mm {\bf Keywords:} Elementary divisor ring, B$\acute{e}$zout ring, Feckly zero-adequate ring, Feckly adequate range 1.

Abstract:
An element in a ring $R$ is called uniquely weakly nil-clean if every element in $R$ can be uniquely written as a sum or a difference of a nilpotent and an idempotent in the sense of very idempotents. The structure of the ring in which every zero-divisor is uniquely weakly nil-clean is completely determined. We prove that every zero-divisor in a ring $R$ is uniquely weakly nil-clean if and only if $R$ is a D-ring, or $R$ is abelian, periodic, and $R/J(R)$ is isomorphic to a field $F$, ${\Bbb Z}_{3}\oplus {\Bbb Z}_{3}$, ${\Bbb Z}_{3}\oplus B$ where $B$ is Boolean, or a Boolean ring. As a specific case, rings in which every zero-divisor $a$ or $-a$ is a nilpotent or an idempotent are also considered. Furthermore, we prove that every zero-divisor in a ring $R$ is uniquely nil-clean if and only if $R$ is a D-ring, or $R$ is abelian, periodic; and $R/J(R)$ is Boolean.\vskip3mm \no {\bf Key words}: Zero-divisor; Uniquely weakly nil-clean ring; Uniquely nil-clean ring.

Abstract:
4-Acyl-3-alkyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one derivatives were prepared by the regioselective acylation of 3-alkyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-ones in the presence of base catalysts such as calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and nanosized magnesium hydroxide. In the presence of nanosized magnesium hydroxide, excellent yields of products were obtained and reaction times were significantly reduced.

Abstract:
Knoevenagel condensation of several aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes with ethyl cyanoacetate and malononitrile was carried out in water: ethanol mixture in the presence of catalytic amounts of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide at 50-60 C. The new technique provide numerous common electron-poor alkenes with high-speed and the products do not require purifying workup.