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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144318 matches for " Shayna B Tomchin "
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Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis
Tomislav M Jelic,Rod Roque,Uzay Yasar,Shayna B Tomchin
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2008,
Abstract: Tomislav M Jelic1, Rod Roque1, Uzay Yasar2, Shayna B Tomchin1, Jose M Serrato2, Samuel G Deem3, James P Tierney3, Ho-Huang Chang11Department of Pathology Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston WV, USA; 2Urology Center of Charleston, Charleston WV, USA; 3Urologic-Surgical Assoc. of Charleston, Charleston WV, USAAbstract: Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.Keywords: calcifying nanoparticles, nanobacteria, encrusted cystitis
Insulin Age-Dependently Modulates Synaptic Transmission and AMPA Receptor Trafficking in Region CA1 of the Rat Hippocampus  [PDF]
Shayna A. Wrighten, Gerardo G. Piroli
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2016.62003
Abstract: Insulin induces long-term depression (insulin-LTD) in the CA1 region of the rat juvenile hippocampus. This insulin-LTD may be due in part to internalization of the GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) events that haven’t been studied in the mature rat hippocampus. In our studies, we used hippocampal preparations from juvenile (14 - 25 days) and mature (60 - 90 days) rats to assess insulin modulation of CA1 synaptic transmission and AMPAR trafficking and phosphorylation. Using field potential electrophysiology, we observed that insulin induced LTD in the juvenile hippocampus (as previously reported) in the presence and absence of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, but produced no significant long-term changes in the mature hippocampus in the presence of PI3K activity. Interestingly, during PI3K inhibition, insulin did produce LTD in the mature hippocampus. Additionally, insulin induced a long-term decrease in plasma membrane expression of the GluA2 and GluA1 subunits of the AMPAR in the juvenile, but not mature hippocampus. Furthermore, there was a long-term decrease in GluA1 phosphorylation at Serine 845 in the juvenile, but not mature hippocampus. These data reveal that insulin modulation of synaptic plasticity and AMPAR modulation within the hippocampus is age-dependent, suggesting that insulin-regulated behaviors may also show age-dependence. These findings are important largely due to the increased use of insulin as a therapeutic throughout the lifespan. Our data suggest that additional work should be done to determine how this use of insulin throughout different stages of life might affect synaptic function and development.
Support for Altruistic Behavior in Rats  [PDF]
Shayna A. Wrighten, Chelsea R. Hall
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.412009
Abstract: Evidence for altruistic behaviors in rats has been continually building over many years, with a large surge in the past 10 years. Many researchers have posited that rats have the cognitive capabilities to engage in these altruistic behaviors that were at one time only attributed to species that are more complex. The results of many of the studies on altruistic behaviors in rats show parallels with non-human primate studies suggesting that what has been observed in rats is indeed altruism as it has been defined in primates. Research focused on rat altruism has provided evidence that these behaviors are influenced by familiarity, similar to findings among primates. Other evidence for altruistic behavior in rats is apparent in their ability to apply a cost-benefit analysis when an opportunity to provide help is presented. There is also evidence that rats rely on previous experiences and predictions of future behaviors of others to make judgments when engaging in altruistic behaviors. Studies have also shown that rats exhibit these altruistic behaviors without the presence of a tangible reward, a primary component in the definition of altruism. The findings presented and the parallels with non-human primate studies provide good evidence that rats are capable of engaging in altruistic behaviors, and that rats may be good candidates for an alternative animal model for further studying altruism. Having rats as a valid model for the study of altruism opens the door to study facets of this behavior that otherwise would not be able to be studied. Because of the important contribution of altruism to social interactions, better understanding of this behavior will hopefully aid in positively influencing social societies such as those lived in by humans and other primates.
Alterations in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Mouse Hippocampus Following Acute but Not Repeated Benzodiazepine Treatment
Stephanie C. Licata, Nina M. Shinday, Megan N. Huizenga, Shayna B. Darnell, Gavin R. Sangrey, Uwe Rudolph, James K. Rowlett, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084806
Abstract: Benzodiazepines (BZs) are safe drugs for treating anxiety, sleep, and seizure disorders, but their use also results in unwanted effects including memory impairment, abuse, and dependence. The present study aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the effects of BZs in the hippocampus (HIP), an area involved in drug-related plasticity, by investigating the regulation of immediate early genes following BZ administration. Previous studies have demonstrated that both brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-Fos contribute to memory- and abuse-related processes that occur within the HIP, and their expression is altered in response to BZ exposure. In the current study, mice received acute or repeated administration of BZs and HIP tissue was analyzed for alterations in BDNF and c-Fos expression. Although no significant changes in BDNF or c-Fos were observed in response to twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of diazepam (10 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg) or zolpidem (ZP; 2.5 mg/kg + 2.5 mg/kg), acute i.p. administration of both triazolam (0.03 mg/kg) and ZP (1.0 mg/kg) decreased BDNF protein levels within the HIP relative to vehicle, without any effect on c-Fos. ZP specifically reduced exon IV-containing BDNF transcripts with a concomitant increase in the association of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) with BDNF promoter IV, suggesting that MeCP2 activity at this promoter may represent a ZP-specific mechanism for reducing BDNF expression. ZP also increased the association of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) with BDNF promoter I. Future work should examine the interaction between ZP and DNA as the cause for altered gene expression in the HIP, given that BZs can enter the nucleus and intercalate into DNA directly.
Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit
Bart J Janssen, Kate Thodey, Robert J Schaffer, Rob Alba, Lena Balakrishnan, Rebecca Bishop, Judith H Bowen, Ross N Crowhurst, Andrew P Gleave, Susan Ledger, Steve McArtney, Franz B Pichler, Kimberley C Snowden, Shayna Ward
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-16
Abstract: Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes.Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.Fruit-bearing crop species are an important component of the human diet providing nutrition, dietary diversity and pleasure. Fruit are typically considered an enlarged organ that surrounds the developing seeds of a plant, or the ripened ovary of a flower together with any associated accessory parts [1]. The development and final form of the fruiting body is widely varied, ranging from minimally expanded simple dehiscent (non-fleshy) fruit of the model plant Arabidopsis, through expanded ovaries of tomato, to complex fruiting organs with several different expanded
Characterization of Synaptically Connected Nuclei in a Potential Sensorimotor Feedback Pathway in the Zebra Finch Song System
Shayna M. Williams, Alexis Nast, Melissa J. Coleman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032178
Abstract: Birdsong is a learned behavior that is controlled by a group of identified nuclei, known collectively as the song system. The cortical nucleus HVC (used as a proper name) is a focal point of many investigations as it is necessary for song production, song learning, and receives selective auditory information. HVC receives input from several sources including the cortical area MMAN (medial magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium). The MMAN to HVC connection is particularly interesting as it provides potential sensorimotor feedback to HVC. To begin to understand the role of this connection, we investigated the physiological relation between MMAN and HVC activity with simultaneous multiunit extracellular recordings from these two nuclei in urethane anesthetized zebra finches. As previously reported, we found similar timing in spontaneous bursts of activity in MMAN and HVC. Like HVC, MMAN responds to auditory playback of the bird's own song (BOS), but had little response to reversed BOS or conspecific song. Stimulation of MMAN resulted in evoked activity in HVC, indicating functional excitation from MMAN to HVC. However, inactivation of MMAN resulted in no consistent change in auditory responses in HVC. Taken together, these results indicate that MMAN provides functional excitatory input to HVC but does not provide significant auditory input to HVC in anesthetized animals. We hypothesize that MMAN may play a role in motor reinforcement or coordination, or may provide modulatory input to the song system about the internal state of the animal as it receives input from the hypothalamus.
Remote spatial memory in aging: all is not lost
R. Shayna Rosenbaum,Gordon Winocur,Malcolm A. Binns,Morris Moscovitch
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2012.00025
Abstract: The ability to acquire and retain spatial memories in order to navigate in new environments is known to decline with age, but little is known about the effect of aging on representations of environments learned long ago, in the remote past. To investigate the status of remote spatial memory in old age, we tested healthy young and older adults on a variety of mental navigation tests based on a large-scale city environment that was very familiar to participants but rarely visited by the older adults in recent years. We show that whereas performance on a route learning test of new spatial learning was significantly worse in older than younger adults, performance was comparable or better in the older adults on mental navigation tests based on a well-known environment learned long ago. An exception was in the older adults' ability to vividly re-experience the well-known environment, and recognize and represent the visual details contained within it. The results are seen as analogous to the pattern of better semantic than episodic memory that has been found to accompany healthy aging.
Knowledge, perceived stigma, and care-seeking experiences for sexually transmitted infections: a qualitative study from the perspective of public clinic attendees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Monica Malta, Francisco I Bastos, Steffanie A Strathdee, Shayna D Cunnigham, Jose Pilotto, Deanna Kerrigan
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-18
Abstract: Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with heterosexual men and women and men who have sex with men presenting with STIs at two public clinics. Content analysis was conducted by coding transcripts of audio-taped interviews for key domains of interest and comparing and synthesizing code output across participants and sub-groups. Thematic narratives were then developed per each of the study sub-groups.Salient themes that emerged from participant narratives included the importance of low STI-related knowledge and high perceived stigma, both STI-related and other types of social stigma, on STI care-seeking delays. However, there are indications in the data that the level of STI-related knowledge and the amount and types of stigma experienced vary across the study sub-groups suggesting the need for further research on the significance and program relevance of these potential differences. Interview findings also suggest that such barriers to care seeking are not adequately addressed through ongoing health education and counseling efforts at public STI clinics and in turn critical opportunities for STI/HIV prevention are currently being missed.Information, communication and education regarding early recognition and prompt care-seeking for STIs should be developed, with consideration given to the possibility of tailoring messages tailored to specific sub-groups. To promote prompt treatment-seeking, interventions must also address both STI-specific and other forms of social stigma which may limit access to care. Efforts to further assess and respond to barriers related to the delivery of quality health education and counseling within the context of public STI clinics are also needed.Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) account for a major burden of disease in many developing countries. In Brazil, an estimated 12 million people are infected with an STI per year [1]. Left untreated, STIs can result in pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, various cancers as we
Anemia among Pediatric Critical Care Survivors: Prevalence and Resolution
Quang N. Ngo,Doreen M. Matsui,Ram N. Singh,Shayna Zelcer
Critical Care Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/684361
Brain transcriptome variation among behaviorally distinct strains of zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Drew Robert E,Settles Matthew L,Churchill Erin J,Williams Shayna M
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-323
Abstract: Background Domesticated animal populations often show profound reductions in predator avoidance and fear-related behavior compared to wild populations. These reductions are remarkably consistent and have been observed in a diverse array of taxa including fish, birds, and mammals. Experiments conducted in common environments indicate that these behavioral differences have a genetic basis. In this study, we quantified differences in fear-related behavior between wild and domesticated zebrafish strains and used microarray analysis to identify genes that may be associated with this variation. Results Compared to wild zebrafish, domesticated zebrafish spent more time near the water surface and were more likely to occupy the front of the aquarium nearest a human observer. Microarray analysis of the brain transcriptome identified high levels of population variation in gene expression, with 1,749 genes significantly differentially expressed among populations. Genes that varied among populations belonged to functional categories that included DNA repair, DNA photolyase activity, response to light stimulus, neuron development and axon guidance, cell death, iron-binding, chromatin reorganization, and homeobox genes. Comparatively fewer genes (112) differed between domesticated and wild strains with notable genes including gpr177 (wntless), selenoprotein P1a, synaptophysin and synaptoporin, and acyl-CoA binding domain containing proteins (acbd3 and acbd4). Conclusions Microarray analysis identified a large number of genes that differed among zebrafish populations and may underlie behavioral domestication. Comparisons with similar microarray studies of domestication in rainbow trout and canids identified sixteen evolutionarily or functionally related genes that may represent components of shared molecular mechanisms underlying convergent behavioral evolution during vertebrate domestication. However, this conclusion must be tempered by limitations associated with comparisons among microarray studies and the low level of population-level replication inherent to these studies.
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