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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145119 matches for " Shaun K. Wilson "
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Remixing Memory through Home Movies
Shaun Wilson
Image and Narrative : Online Magazine of the Visual Narrative , 2011,
Abstract: : The moving image has traditionally provided a catalyst for screen-based culture to develop a language that evokes a means and experience of storytelling positioned in-between the image and the viewer. However, this article will frame such a relationship by distancing the moving image from a cinematic or industrial context to instead look to the amateur cohort of private films commonly referred to as ‘home movies’, In doing so, I will consider what Bachelard refers to as a returning to childhood in search of memory, to form a reasoned understanding of the ways in which memory itself can be grafted in-between film and experience. This article will focus on celluloid film which I will define as vintage home movies, namely Standard 8mm and Super 8mm film contributed from domestic-orientated archives. The discussion will examine two main video installations evidencing selected work in the wider series.Filmic Memorials (2002-06) comprised of a substantial body of work established from my family collection of 8mm home movies. Résumé: Dans notre culture de l'écran, l 'image mobile a souvent servi de catalyseur à l'élaboration d'un langage narratif situé à mi-chemin de l'expérience du spectateur et des particularités de l'image. Dans cet article, on voudrait revenir sur ce début en privilégiant non pas le contexte cinématographique ou industriel de l'image mobile mais la production de films amateurs ou domestiques que l'on nomme souvent les "home movies". Ce déplacement me permettra de regarder plus en détail ce que Bachelard appelle un retour à l'enfance dans la quête mémorielle et de mieux comprendre la manière dont la mémoire elle-même se place entre cinéma et expérience. Le corpus de cet article se compose d'un ensemble de films sur pellicule qui relèvent du genre des "vintage home movies", à savoir des films 8 ou super 8 empruntés à des archives de type familial. Je présenterai aussi deux installations vidéo de la série Filmic Memorials (2002-06), l'une et l'autre basées sur des documents provenant de ma propre collection familiale.
Diarrhea, Pneumonia, and Infectious Disease Mortality in Children Aged 5 to 14 Years in India
Shaun K. Morris,Diego G. Bassani,Shally Awasthi,Rajesh Kumar,Anita Shet,Wilson Suraweera,Prabhat Jha
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020119
Abstract: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years.
Habitat Associations of Juvenile Fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: The Importance of Coral and Algae
Shaun K. Wilson,Martial Depczynski,Rebecca Fisher,Thomas H. Holmes,Rebecca A. O'Leary,Paul Tinkler
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015185
Abstract: Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres) 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting) were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and protecting reefs resilient to this should be a conservation priority.
Changes in Biodiversity and Functioning of Reef Fish Assemblages following Coral Bleaching and Coral Loss
Morgan S. Pratchett,Andrew S. Hoey,Shaun K. Wilson,Vanessa Messmer,Nicholas A.J. Graham
Diversity , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/d3030424
Abstract: Coral reef ecosystems are increasingly subject to severe, large-scale disturbances caused by climate change (e.g., coral bleaching) and other more direct anthropogenic impacts. Many of these disturbances cause coral loss and corresponding changes in habitat structure, which has further important effects on abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes. Declines in the abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes are of considerable concern, given the potential loss of ecosystem function. This study explored the effects of coral loss, recorded in studies conducted throughout the world, on the diversity of fishes and also on individual responses of fishes within different functional groups. Extensive (>60%) coral loss almost invariably led to declines in fish diversity. Moreover, most fishes declined in abundance following acute disturbances that caused >10% declines in local coral cover. Response diversity, which is considered critical in maintaining ecosystem function and promoting resilience, was very low for corallivores, but was much higher for herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. Sustained and ongoing climate change thus poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems and diversity hotspots are no less susceptible to projected changes in diversity and function.
Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke and the Risk of Tuberculosis in Children and Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 18 Observational Studies
Jayadeep Patra?,Mehak Bhatia?,Wilson Suraweera?,Shaun K. Morris?,Cyril Patra?,Prakash C. Gupta?,Prabhat Jha
PLOS Medicine , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001835
Abstract: Background According to WHO Global Health Estimates, tuberculosis (TB) is among the top ten causes of global mortality and ranks second after cardiovascular disease in most high-burden regions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the role of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure as a risk factor for TB among children and adults. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar up to August 31, 2014. Our a priori inclusion criteria encompassed only original studies where latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB disease were diagnosed microbiologically, clinically, histologically, or radiologically. Effect estimates were pooled using fixed- and random-effects models. We identified 18 eligible studies, with 30,757 children and 44,432 adult non-smokers, containing SHS exposure and TB outcome data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Twelve studies assessed children and eight studies assessed adult non-smokers; two studies assessed both populations. Summary relative risk (RR) of LTBI associated with SHS exposure in children was similar to the overall effect size, with high heterogeneity (pooled RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.00–2.83). Children showed a more than 3-fold increased risk of SHS-associated active TB (pooled RR 3.41, 95% CI 1.81–6.45), which was higher than the risk in adults exposed to SHS (summary RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.04–1.68). Positive and significant exposure–response relationships were observed among children under 5 y (RR 5.88, 95% CI 2.09–16.54), children exposed to SHS through any parent (RR 4.20, 95% CI 1.92–9.20), and children living under the most crowded household conditions (RR 5.53, 95% CI 2.36–12.98). Associations for LTBI and active TB disease remained significant after adjustment for age, biomass fuel (BMF) use, and presence of a TB patient in the household, although the meta-analysis was limited to a subset of studies that adjusted for these variables. There was a loss of association with increased risk of LTBI (but not active TB) after adjustment for socioeconomic status (SES) and study quality. The major limitation of this analysis is the high heterogeneity in outcomes among studies of pediatric cases of LTBI and TB disease. Conclusions We found that SHS exposure is associated with an increase in the relative risk of LTBI and active TB after controlling for age, BMF use, and contact with a TB patient, and there was no significant association of SHS exposure with LTBI after adjustment for SES and study quality. Given the high heterogeneity among the
Deaths from Symptomatically Identifiable Furious Rabies in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey
Wilson Suraweera,Shaun K. Morris,Rajesh Kumar,David A. Warrell,Mary J. Warrell,Prabhat Jha ,for the Million Death Study Collaborators
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001847
Abstract: Background It is estimated that India has more deaths from rabies than any other country. However, existing estimates are indirect and rely on non-representative studies. Methods and Principal Findings We examined rabies deaths in the ongoing Million Death Study (MDS), a representative survey of over 122,000 deaths in India that uses enhanced types of verbal autopsy. We estimated the age-specific mortality rates of symptomatically identifiable furious rabies and its geographic and demographic distributions. A total of 140 deaths in our sample were caused by rabies, suggesting that in 2005 there were 12,700 (99% CI 10,000 to 15,500) symptomatically identifiable furious rabies deaths in India. Most rabies deaths were in males (62%), in rural areas (91%), and in children below the age of 15 years (50%). The overall rabies mortality rate was 1.1 deaths per 100,000 population (99%CI 0.9 to 1.4). One third of the national rabies deaths were found in Uttar Pradesh (4,300) and nearly three quarters (8,900) were in 7 central and south-eastern states: Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, and Madhya Pradesh. Conclusions and Significance Rabies remains an avoidable cause of death in India. As verbal autopsy is not likely to identify atypical or paralytic forms of rabies, our figure of 12,700 deaths due to classic and clinically identifiable furious rabies underestimates the total number of deaths due to this virus. The concentrated geographic distribution of rabies in India suggests that a significant reduction in the number of deaths or potentially even elimination of rabies deaths is possible.
Everyday inclusive Web design: an activity perspective
Shaun K. Kane
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction. The accessibility of Websites to people with disabilities is a problem that affects millions of people. Current accessibility initiatives generally target large government or commercial sites. A rapidly growing segment of online content is created by non-professionals. This content is often inaccessible, thereby excluding users with disabilities. Method. Activity theory is used to provide a model of the activities of non-professional, 'end-user' designers. Drawing from the author's experiences with technology learners, a holistic model of end-user Web design is produced. Analysis. The activity model is divided into three components. The activities of end-user designers, tool designers and Website consumers are examined. Potential barriers to the adoption of accessibility practices are identified. Results. Barriers to accessibility can occur within individual activity systems, or may be caused by interactions between systems. The accessibility of this content cannot be addressed by a single party, but requires collaboration between the designer and toolmaker. End-user designers work within a complex social environment and may face uncertainty regarding their roles as designers that affects their awareness of accessibility. Conclusion. . Increasing the accessibility of user-produced content may require a holistic approach. An activity model may be helpful in producing tools and educational materials
Cluster mass reconstruction from weak gravitational lensing
Gillian Wilson,Shaun Cole,Carlos S. Frenk
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/280.1.199
Abstract: Kaiser & Squires have proposed a technique for mapping the dark matter in galaxy clusters using the coherent weak distortion of background galaxy images caused by gravitational lensing. We investigate the effectiveness of this technique under controlled conditions by creating simulated CCD frames containing galaxies lensed by a model cluster, measuring the resulting galaxy shapes, and comparing the reconstructed mass distribution with the original. Typically, the reconstructed surface density is diminished in magnitude when compared to the original. The main cause of this reduced signal is the blurring of galaxy images by atmospheric seeing, but the overall factor by which the reconstructed surface density is reduced depends also on the signal-to-noise ratio in the CCD frame and on both the sizes of galaxy images and the magnitude limit of the sample that is analysed. We propose a method for estimating a multiplicative compensation factor. We test our technique using a lensing cluster drawn from a cosmological N-body simulation with a variety of realistic background galaxy populations and observing conditions. We find that typically the compensation factor is appreciable, 1.4
Constraining Omega using weak gravitational lensing by clusters
Gillian Wilson,Shaun Cole,Carlos S. Frenk
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/282.2.501
Abstract: The morphology of galaxy clusters reflects the epoch at which they formed and hence depends on the value of the mean cosmological density, Omega. Recent studies have shown that the distribution of dark matter in clusters can be mapped from analysis of the small distortions in the shapes of background galaxies induced by weak gravitational lensing in the cluster potential. We construct new statistics to quantify the morphology of clusters which are insensitive to limitations in the mass reconstruction procedure. By simulating weak gravitational lensing in artificial clusters grown in numerical simulations of the formation of clusters in three different cosmologies, we obtain distributions of a quadrupole statistic which measures global deviations from spherical symmetry in a cluster. These distributions are very sensitive to the value of Omega_0 and, as a result, lensing observations of a small number of clusters should be sufficient to place broad constraints on Omega_{0} and certainly to distinguish between the extreme values of 0.2 and 1.
Taxonomic and Diversity Studies on Odonate Nymphs by Using Their Exuviae
Shaun Paul,Francy K. Kakkassery
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Taxonomic and diversity studies of odonate nymphs are conducted by collecting them from breeding places or by rearing them in the laboratory which is time consuming and affects the natural population of nymphs and adults. The present study attempts to examine the characters of odonate nymphs by using their exuviae (the larval skin of the last instar) having all the larval characters. These taxonomic characters can also be used to identify the odonate nymphs up to species level and throw of light on the species diversity of a habitat without affecting the live specimens of odonates (nymphs and adults). Five species belonging to three families were identified by comparing the larval characters present on exuviae, collected from a temporary pond at Ammadam, Thrissur district, Kerala state, India.
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