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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2660 matches for " Shashi Prakash "
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Neurology of consciousness: Need for Indian impetus
Prakash Ravi,Prakash Shashi
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2007,
Venous Ulcer: Review Article  [PDF]
Shashi Prakash, Satyendra Kumar Tiwary, Manjaree Mishra, Ajay Kumar Khanna
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.42028

Venous ulceration is the most severe and debilitating outcome of chronic venous insufficiency in the lower limbs and accounts for 80 percent of lower extremity ulcerations. The morbidity caused by them has a serious impact on the quality of life. Sustained venous hypertension, caused by venous insufficiency leads to venous ulceration. The diagnosis is mainly clinical but needs to be differentiated from other causes of lower limb ulcers. Doppler ultrasound is the diagnostic investigation. Treatment options for venous ulcers include conservative management, mechanical treatment, medications, and surgical options. The goals of treatment are to reduce edema, improve ulcer healing, and prevent recurrence. The achievement of good long term results depends on continuous care, ulcer care clinics, home health nursing and regular evaluation by the doctor. They have a crucial role to play for the amelioration of this common and morbid condition.

Global nonlinear optimization for the estimation of static shift and interpretation of 1-D magnetotelluric sounding data
Shashi Prakash Sharma,Arkoprovo Biswas
Annals of Geophysics , 2011, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4766
Abstract: In the presence of conducting inhomogeneities in near-surface structures, apparent resistivity data in magnetotelluric sounding can be severely distorted. This is due to electric fields generated from boundary charges on surficial inhomogeneities. Such distortion persists throughout the entire recording range and is known as static shift in magnetotellurics. Frequency-independent static shifts manifest as vertical, parallel shifts that occur in plots of the dual logarithmic scale of apparent resistivity versus time period. The phase of magnetotelluric sounding data remains unaffected by the static shift and can be used to remove the static shift to some extent. However, individual inversion of phase data yields highly nonunique results, and alone it will not work to correctly remove the static shift. Inversions of uncorrected magnetotelluric data yield erroneous and unreliable estimations, while static-shift-corrected magnetotelluric data provide better and reliable estimations of the resistivities and thicknesses of subsurface structures. In the present study, static shift (a frequency-independent real constant) is also considered as one of the model parameters and is optimized together with other model parameters (resistivity and thickness) using the very fast simulated annealing global inversion technique. This implies that model parameters are determined simultaneously with the estimate of the static shift in the data. Synthetic and noisy data generated for a number of models are interpreted, to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to yield reliable estimates of subsurface structures when the apparent resistivity data are affected by static shift. Individual inversions of static-shift-affected apparent resistivity data and phase data yield unreliable estimations of the model parameters. Furthermore, the estimated model parameters after individual data inversions do not show any systematic correlations with the amount of static shift in the data. The present study shows that only joint inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase data, without or with optimizing of the static shift, yields models that show good fits between the observed and the model data. Joint inversion results also reveal a systematic relationship between the estimated model parameters and the static shift in the data. The proposed approach also shows that estimated resistivities are ‘S’ (the static shift parameter) times the actual resistivities, and that estimated thicknesses are √S times the actual thicknesses without optimization of the static shift. This result is in go
Optimization of Laser Transmission Joining Process Parameters on Joint Strength of PET and 316?L Stainless Steel Joint Using Response Surface Methodology
Shashi Prakash Dwivedi,Satpal Sharma
Journal of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/197060
Abstract: The objective of the present work is to study the effects of laser power, joining speed, and stand-off distance on the joint strength of PET and 316?L stainless steel joint. The process parameters were optimized using response methodology for achieving good joint strength. The central composite design (CCD) has been utilized to plan the experiments and response surface methodology (RSM) is employed to develop mathematical model between laser transmission joining parameters and desired response (joint strength). From the ANOVA (analysis of variance), it was concluded that laser power is contributing more and it is followed by joining speed and stand-off distance. In the range of process parameters, the result shows that laser power increases and joint strength increases. Whereas joining speed increases, joint strength increases. The joint strength increases with the increase of the stand-off distance until it reaches the center value; the joint strength then starts to decrease with the increase of stand-off distance beyond the center limit. Optimum values of laser power, joining speed, and stand-off distance were found to be?18 watt, 100?mm/min, and 2?mm to get the maximum joint strength (predicted: 88.48?MPa). There was approximately 3.37% error in the experimental and modeled results of joint strength. 1. Introduction Laser transmission joining has various advantages over conventional plastic joining techniques, for example, no contact, high joining speed, accuracy, flexibility, small heat affected zone, and so forth. Laser transmission joining technology has extensively promising applications in the fields of the microfluidics, microelectromechanical systems, and biomedicine [1, 2]. During laser transmission welding of overlap connections laser radiation transmits through the upper thermoplastic part and is absorbed by a lower material. Heat is developed in the laser absorbing part, which melts the thermoplastic locally. Due to heat conduction, the laser transparent part melts locally too. Thermoplastic materials are laser radiation absorbing, when the material contains, for example, carbon black, absorbing additives, and pigments or when the materials are reinforced with carbon fibers [3]. There is a continuously growing interest in the joining of dissimilar materials in manufacturing industries. Joining of PET to 316?L stainless steel is found in a number of industrial applications [4]. The advantages of laser transmission joining are as follows: (a) exact control of the energy deposition in the joining area; (b) minimization of the heat affected
Global workspace model of consciousness and its electromagnetic correlates
Prakash Ravi,Prakash Om,Prakash Shashi,Abhishek Priyadarshi
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2008,
Abstract: The global workspace of consciousness was proposed in its elementary framework by Baars, in 1982. Since the time of inception, there have been many speculations and modifications of this theory, but the central theme has remained the same, which refers to the global availability of information in the brain. However, the present understanding about the origin of this global workspace or its mechanism of operation is still deficient. One of the less-studied candidates for this global workspace is the electromagnetic field of the brain. The present work is a brief review of the theoretical underpinnings of the Global workspace model, in terms of its theoretical framework and neuroimaging evidences. Subsequently, we turn towards another broad group of theories of consciousness, in the form of electromagnetic field theories. We then proceed to highlight some electromagnetic correlates derived from these theories for this global access phenomenon.
Exploration of different yogic states for a better understanding of consciousness: An electromagnetic perspective
Prakash Ravi,Prakash Shashi,Prakash Om,Bhatt Nitin
International Journal of Yoga , 2008,
Comparative evaluation of atenolol and clonidine premedication on cardiovascular response to nasal speculum insertion during trans-sphenoid surgery for resection of pituitary adenoma: A prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled study
Gupta Devendra,Srivastava Shashi,Dubey Rajeev,Prakash Prabhakar
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia , 2011,
Abstract: Severe cardiovascular responses in the form of tachycardia and hypertension following nasal speculum insertion occur during sublabial rhinoseptal trans-sphenoid approach for resection of small pituitary tumours. We compare the effects of preoperative administration of clonidine (α-2 agonist) and atenolol (α-blocker) over haemodynamic response, caused by speculum insertion during trans-sphenoid pituitary resection. We enrolled 66 patients in age range 18-65 years, of ASA I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective sublabial rhinoseptal trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy. Group I (control) received placebo, group II (clonidine) received tablet clonidine 5 μg/kg, and group III (atenolol) received tablet atenolol 0.5 mg/kg. The heart rate increased on speculum insertion and 5 and 10 minutes following speculum insertion as compared to the pre-speculum values in the control group, while no change in the heart rate was observed in other groups (P<0.05). There was a rise in the mean arterial pressure during and 5, 10, and 15 minutes after nasal speculum insertion in the control group, whereas it was not seen in other groups (P<0.05). We therefore suggest that oral clonidine and oral atenolol (given 2 hours prior to surgery) is an equally effective and safe method of attenuating haemodynamic response caused by nasal speculum insertion during trans-sphenoid pituitary resection.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring By Reverse Iontophoresis
Anroop B Nair,Ankit Goel,Shashi Prakash,Ashok Kumar
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Therapeutic molecules possessing distinct pharmacokinetic variation, narrow therapeutic index and concentration dependent therapeutic/adverse effects demand constant monitoring. The current methods for blood sampling are invasive and possess low patient compliance. Human skin, selective and effective membrane to chemical permeation, offers an alternative route for the extraction of endogenous molecules in the body. Significant attention has been received in the application of reverse iontophoresis in extracting drugs/biomaterials from the subdermal region. This technique involves transiting of a low electric current across the skin usually with couple of skin electrodes to extract charged aswell as neutral molecules. Electromigration and electroosmosis are the two basic mechanisms involved in transport of molecules. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated the potential of reverse iontophoresis as a noninvasive tool in clinical chemistry and therapeutic drug monitoring. This technology is currently being used in device such as Glucowatch Biogrpaher which allows blood glucose detection across skin layers. Advances in technology and rapid progress in research has widely improved the opportunity of this system, and the recent trend indicates that severalproducts are likely to be developed very soon. This review provides an overview about the recent developments in reverse iontophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring.
Prakash Shashi,Nair Anroop,Saini Vipin,Sahu Neelam
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosmetics and therapeutic formulations and the real time measurement of the molecules in the skin layer has become obligatory. It is well known that the properties of both drug and the excipients have identical role in determining the skin permeability of chemical moieties. In the last decade several investigations have been carried out in this filed using several in vitro and in vivo models. This review provides a brief account on the basics of skin kinetics, parameters assessed, various techniques and methods adapted in skin kinetic studies. Moreover, we have also discussed about the micro-environment inside the skin layer and the possible mechanism of drug depot formation, skin metabolism and clearance of molecules from the skin layers.
In Vitro Scanning Electron Microscopic Study on the Effect of Doxycycline and Vancomycin on Enterococcal Induced Biofilm
Krishnaraj Somayaji,Shashi Rashmi Acharya,Indira Bairy,Peralam Yegneswaran Prakash
Iranian Endodontic Journal , 2010,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus (E) faecalis bacteria adhere to dentine of teeth root canals to form the biofilm. E. faecalis has been shown to be resistant to antibiotics. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the efficacy of vancomycin and doxycycline in inhibiting E. faecalis biofilm formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 extracted human teeth were incubated with E. faecalis (ATCC 35550 strain) for 45 days to allow biofilm formation. The teeth were equally divided into six groups (n=10): 1) positive control, 2) negative control, 3) doxycycline alone 4) doxycycline with filing, 5) vancomycin alone, 6) vancomycin with filing. The relevant canals were irrigated with 4μg/mL of either vancomycin or doxycycline antibiotic. Teeth were processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Areas of biofilm remaining in the canals after antibiotic treatment were measured with Scion image analysis software using the SEM images. RESULTS: Vancomycin is more effective in reducing the overall biofilm area compared with doxycycline; moreover filing after antibiotic administration increased this effect. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that vancomycin had greater efficacy than doxycycline for inhibiting and reducing E. faecalis biofilms growth in root canals. However, it failed to completely eliminate biofilm formation.
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