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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 464 matches for " Sharyn Welch "
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A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center
Travis Austin,Daniel E. Brooks,Sharyn Welch,Frank LoVecchio
International Journal of Family Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/417823
Abstract: Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone responsible for triaging patient phone queries. Using a scripted form, trained investigators questioned 100 consecutive primary care provider offices on how they would handle these poisoning-related calls if there was no poison center to refer their patients to. Results of our survey suggest that 82.5% of poisoning-related calls to primary care offices would be referred to 911 or an emergency department if there was no poison center. These results further support the role that poison centers play in patient care and health care utilization. 1. Background In 2009 US poison control centers (PCCs) handled over 4.2 million calls related to poisonings, drug information, and environmental exposures (e.g., envenomations), including almost 2.5 million human exposures [1]. Over 90% of these exposures occurred at the caller’s residence and 72.5% were managed on site, thereby not requiring an evaluation at a health care facility. These numbers of calls and percentage of on-site management have been consistent for several years [2]. Past work has shown that PCCs can save health care resources [3–11] including the prevention of unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits, and decrease lengths of stay for poisoned patients [4, 12–14]. One study, involving 2007 data from our single PCC, showed a median savings of $33 million in unnecessary health care charges by managing patients at home [11]. A report from the United States Institute of Medicine estimates that the combined activities of all US PCCs save more than $900 million annually [15, 16]. Other reviews have identified the importance of maintaining government’s financial support of PCCs, [15, 17] including one cost analysis that offered an appropriate summary by concluding that “poison control centers offer a large return on investment” [18]. Despite these data PCCs continue to be challenged with budget cuts [17, 19, 20]. Our PCC routinely conducts quality assurance surveys to identify our need and role within our community. We interview callers and health care providers on several issues including their satisfaction with our
The many faces of Crohn’s Disease: Latest concepts in etiology  [PDF]
Jordana Campbell, Thomas J. Borody, Sharyn Leis
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22020
Abstract: The notion that Crohn’s Disease (CD) occurs as a result of an aberrant reaction to the commensal microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts is widely regarded by physicians and scientists as fact. Yet although it is undisputed that Crohn’s Disease is immune-mediated, an aberrant reaction to one’s own native flora is far from proven. The aim of the current review is to present a summary of the known infectious causes of Crohn’s Disease, whilst highlighting the limitations of using outdated methods to attempt to classify the disease as a single entity. We propose a re-classification of Crohn’s Disease, and suggest that the disease is best conceptualized as a syndrome, an “umbrella-like” term comprising a group of diseases with varying infective etiologies, which clinically, endoscopically and histologically are indistinguishable from CD.
Developing a Dynamic Microsimulation Model of the Australian Health System: A Means to Explore Impacts of Obesity over the Next 50 Years
Sharyn Lymer,Laurie Brown
Epidemiology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/132392
Abstract: Health of the ageing population has the potential to place considerable pressure on future government spending. Further, the impacts of the obesity epidemic have the potential to place additional pressure on government health budgets. In response to such fiscal concerns in Australia, a dynamic microsimulation model, APPSIM, has been developed at the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM). The health module was developed to allow consideration of health behaviours within the context of an ageing population and the resultant health profile of the population. Also included in the modelling is the associated use of health services and their costs. All health variables used were imputed onto the 2001 basefile derived from the 1 percent unit record file of the 2001 Australian census. Transition equations of these variables were estimated to allow projections over time. In this paper, the model has been used to look at the impacts of obesity on the Australian population health profile and associated health expenditure. In the scenario, removal of obesity from the population leads to a simulated population with a better health profile but showed only marginal changes in relative health expenditure. 1. Introduction It is well known that the Australian population is ageing and that across all age groups there is rising levels of obesity. In 1971, 8 percent of the Australian population was aged 65 years and over: by 2010, this had increased to almost 14 percent [1]. Official projections indicate that by 2050 some 23 percent of the Australian population will be aged 65 years and over [2]. An ageing population places increased pressure on government spending through increased demand for health care, aged care, and pensions. Health care spending has been steadily growing, from $Au 42 billion in 1996-1997 to $Au 103 billion in 2006-2007 [3]. Projections estimate continued rises in health expenditure from 3.7 percent of GDP in 2009/10 to 7.0 percent of GDP in 2046/47 [2]. Beyond the number or proportion of the aged population, the impacts on future health expenditure will be moderated by the health experience of the aged population. Possibilities of morbidity compression [4], expansion [5], dynamic equilibrium [6], or some cyclic effect between compression and expansion of morbidity [7] will impact the possible demand for health services. The relationship between health and longevity may be effected by the severity of disease not being as great due to slower progression of disease [8]. Further, issues such as new technology, medications, and changes
Sharyn Renshaw,Girija Krishnaswamy
Lex et Scientia , 2008,
Abstract: This paper will provide critical analysis of Australia’ knowledge strategy, conducted from the perspective that driving a national knowledge strategy is the predominant responsibility of government for reasons of impartiality. As such critique will be focused upon the actionsundertaken by the Australian government to position the nation as a Knowledge-based Economy (KBE) competitively within the global community. It will be argued that to qualify for the title of “knowledge nation” the country needs to perform well across a composite range of factors. Examination of composite strategies will be conducted within a model of Knowledge Development, categorising the government’s knowledge sourcing, abstraction, conversion, diffusion and refinement strategies. The paper will conclude with recommendations for improving Australia’s position within the global knowledge economy and consequently within the global information community.
Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students?  [PDF]
Kristen Hunt, Sharyn Burns
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.76009
Abstract: Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. Online data were collected from a random sample of university undergraduate students (n = 2506) aged 18 - 24 years old. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). Of these students 38% reported to drink at hazardous levels (AUDIT ≥ 8). When all factors were considered: gender, living arrangements, being a domestic student, hours spent at work, participation in university and community sport, higher levels of psychological distress, higher levels of social connectedness, and lower levels of social identity were significant predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption. The finding highlights the need for the inclusion of integrated, multi-strategy health promotion interventions on campus. Further exploration of the associations between social connectedness and social identity as influences of health behaviors will better inform the development of targeted strategies for specific groups.
Is Network Clustering Detectable in Transmission Trees?
David Welch
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3060659
Abstract: Networks are often used to model the contact processes that allow pathogens to spread between hosts but it remains unclear which models best describe these networks. One question is whether clustering in networks, roughly defined as the propensity for triangles to form, affects the dynamics of disease spread. We perform a simulation study to see if there is a signal in epidemic transmission trees of clustering. We simulate susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) epidemics (with no re-infection) over networks with fixed degree sequences but different levels of clustering and compare trees from networks with the same degree sequence and different clustering levels. We find that the variation of such trees simulated on networks with different levels of clustering is barely greater than those simulated on networks with the same level of clustering, suggesting that clustering can not be detected in transmission data when re-infection does not occur.
Anaesthetic genetics and genomics
E Welch
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia , 2011,
Abstract: Genetic variations have always been implicated in interindividual reactions to various pharmaceutical agents. Some common genetically determined anaesthetic conditions, such as malignant hyperthermia, “scoline apnoea”, “halothane hepatitis” and porphyria, are fairly well described, and the genetic differences in enzyme, receptor and ion channel systems are slowly being elucidated. These genomic differences allow some explanation as to why drugs that work well in certain patients produce no or unwanted effects in others.
Revolt at the Attica La rivolta di Attica
Michael Welch
lo Squaderno , 2009,
Abstract: Perhaps no other prison riot has received as much notoriety as the uprising at Attica (New York). From the onset, Attica became a metaphor for numerous social problems, including racism, oppression, and injustice. Metaphors aside, in-depth investigations of Attica have concluded that racism, oppression, and injustice were salient features before, during, and after the riot.
Making Connections: YAAN as a Paper Blog?
Cindy Welch
In the Library with the Lead Pipe , 2010,
Abstract: Brooke Shields is a descendant of Louis XIV; Emmett Smith is seven percent Native American; and Matthew Broderick’s ancestor fought at Gettysburg. We learn these things courtesy of a new television show called “Who Do you think You Are?,” which follows the rich and famous as they trace their family trees. For me, one of [...]
An early entente cordiale? Cross-Channel connections in the Anglo-Saxon period
Martin Welch
Archaeology International , 2000, DOI: 10.5334/ai.0410
Abstract: New research in northern France by an international team, including members of the Institute of Archaeology, is beginning to reveal a pattern of close connections across the Channel between Franks and Anglo-Saxons in the sixth and seventh centuries AD.
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