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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 41 matches for " Sharyn Lymer "
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Developing a Dynamic Microsimulation Model of the Australian Health System: A Means to Explore Impacts of Obesity over the Next 50 Years
Sharyn Lymer,Laurie Brown
Epidemiology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/132392
Abstract: Health of the ageing population has the potential to place considerable pressure on future government spending. Further, the impacts of the obesity epidemic have the potential to place additional pressure on government health budgets. In response to such fiscal concerns in Australia, a dynamic microsimulation model, APPSIM, has been developed at the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM). The health module was developed to allow consideration of health behaviours within the context of an ageing population and the resultant health profile of the population. Also included in the modelling is the associated use of health services and their costs. All health variables used were imputed onto the 2001 basefile derived from the 1 percent unit record file of the 2001 Australian census. Transition equations of these variables were estimated to allow projections over time. In this paper, the model has been used to look at the impacts of obesity on the Australian population health profile and associated health expenditure. In the scenario, removal of obesity from the population leads to a simulated population with a better health profile but showed only marginal changes in relative health expenditure. 1. Introduction It is well known that the Australian population is ageing and that across all age groups there is rising levels of obesity. In 1971, 8 percent of the Australian population was aged 65 years and over: by 2010, this had increased to almost 14 percent [1]. Official projections indicate that by 2050 some 23 percent of the Australian population will be aged 65 years and over [2]. An ageing population places increased pressure on government spending through increased demand for health care, aged care, and pensions. Health care spending has been steadily growing, from $Au 42 billion in 1996-1997 to $Au 103 billion in 2006-2007 [3]. Projections estimate continued rises in health expenditure from 3.7 percent of GDP in 2009/10 to 7.0 percent of GDP in 2046/47 [2]. Beyond the number or proportion of the aged population, the impacts on future health expenditure will be moderated by the health experience of the aged population. Possibilities of morbidity compression [4], expansion [5], dynamic equilibrium [6], or some cyclic effect between compression and expansion of morbidity [7] will impact the possible demand for health services. The relationship between health and longevity may be effected by the severity of disease not being as great due to slower progression of disease [8]. Further, issues such as new technology, medications, and changes
Developments in Internet Financial Reporting: Review and Analysis Across Five Developed Countries
Amir Allam,Andrew Lymer
International Journal of Digital Accounting Research , 2003,
Abstract: Internet based corporate reporting is wide spread amongst companies of all sizes inmost countries around the world. The development of online reporting practice has beenrapid, largely mirroring, and motivated by, the development of the world-wide-web since1994, being the primary Internet medium for online reporting. A number of studies of thesedevelopments have occurred over this time seeking to plot how companies are exploiting themedia of the Internet and how they are developing their reporting practices in response to thisubiquitous route to current and potential investors, and other stakeholders. In this paper, wedevelop this literature further by extending the benchmarks that have been created to monitorthis activity since the mid 1990s. This study focuses on the very largest companies in fivecountries around the world. It examines online reporting practices of 250 companies at theend of 2001 and in early 2002 by creating a detailed attribute analysis of common factorsacross the companies examined. In addition to illustrating developments in online reportingpractices since the previous extensive studies were conducted in 1999 and early 2000, theresults provide new insight into recent changes in this domain. It particularly illustrates hownewer, more interactive, aspects of Internet technologies are now being exploited to enable usto benchmark these activities to follow their use in the near future. The paper then addressesthe relationship between the size of companies and its level of reporting practices, and thedifferences between reporting practices of large companies listed primarily in the differentcountries examined. These results illustrate that reporting practices differ significantly betweencompanies in different domains.
The many faces of Crohn’s Disease: Latest concepts in etiology  [PDF]
Jordana Campbell, Thomas J. Borody, Sharyn Leis
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22020
Abstract: The notion that Crohn’s Disease (CD) occurs as a result of an aberrant reaction to the commensal microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts is widely regarded by physicians and scientists as fact. Yet although it is undisputed that Crohn’s Disease is immune-mediated, an aberrant reaction to one’s own native flora is far from proven. The aim of the current review is to present a summary of the known infectious causes of Crohn’s Disease, whilst highlighting the limitations of using outdated methods to attempt to classify the disease as a single entity. We propose a re-classification of Crohn’s Disease, and suggest that the disease is best conceptualized as a syndrome, an “umbrella-like” term comprising a group of diseases with varying infective etiologies, which clinically, endoscopically and histologically are indistinguishable from CD.
CRITIQUING AUSTRALIA’S KNOWLEDGE STRATEGY: HOW CAN WE BETTER POSITION OURSELVES IN A GLOBAL COMMUNITY?
Sharyn Renshaw,Girija Krishnaswamy
Lex et Scientia , 2008,
Abstract: This paper will provide critical analysis of Australia’ knowledge strategy, conducted from the perspective that driving a national knowledge strategy is the predominant responsibility of government for reasons of impartiality. As such critique will be focused upon the actionsundertaken by the Australian government to position the nation as a Knowledge-based Economy (KBE) competitively within the global community. It will be argued that to qualify for the title of “knowledge nation” the country needs to perform well across a composite range of factors. Examination of composite strategies will be conducted within a model of Knowledge Development, categorising the government’s knowledge sourcing, abstraction, conversion, diffusion and refinement strategies. The paper will conclude with recommendations for improving Australia’s position within the global knowledge economy and consequently within the global information community.
Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students?  [PDF]
Kristen Hunt, Sharyn Burns
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.76009
Abstract: Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. Online data were collected from a random sample of university undergraduate students (n = 2506) aged 18 - 24 years old. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). Of these students 38% reported to drink at hazardous levels (AUDIT ≥ 8). When all factors were considered: gender, living arrangements, being a domestic student, hours spent at work, participation in university and community sport, higher levels of psychological distress, higher levels of social connectedness, and lower levels of social identity were significant predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption. The finding highlights the need for the inclusion of integrated, multi-strategy health promotion interventions on campus. Further exploration of the associations between social connectedness and social identity as influences of health behaviors will better inform the development of targeted strategies for specific groups.
A Conceptual Framework for Investigating the Impact of the Internet on Corporate Financial Reporting
Jason Zezhong Xiao,Michael John Jones,Andy Lymer
International Journal of Digital Accounting Research , 2005,
Abstract: This paper develops a conceptual framework of the impact of the Internet on corporate financial reporting on the basis of the issues and concerns elicited through an open-ended questionnaire survey of 17 UK-based experts in the Internet/accounting. These experts were drawn from academics, accounting firms, business companies, regulators, and users of accounting information. The diverse views expressed by our experts enable us to construct a four dimensional framework on the nature of change in financial reporting (content, form or both), the role of the Internet (as problem solver, problem creator or both), the determinant of change (technology, non-technology, or both) and the pace of change (little or no change, progressive change and radical change). These dimensions and sub-dimensions are combined to form a ‘perspective surround’ enclosing a conceptual matrix of 81 different possible scenarios. The framework provides a basis for mapping existing and future studies on Internet reporting and constructing scenarios of future Internet-based financial reporting.
Anastral spindle assembly and γ-tubulin in Drosophila oocytes
Sharyn A Endow, Mark A Hallen
BMC Cell Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-12-1
Abstract: We show, for the first time, using a bright GFP fusion protein and live imaging, that the Drosophila maternally-expressed γTub37C is present at low levels in oocyte meiosis I spindles. Despite this, we find that formation of bipolar meiosis I spindles does not require functional γTub37C, extending previous findings by others. Fluorescence photobleaching assays show rapid recovery of γTub37C in the meiosis I spindle, similar to the cytoplasm, indicating weak binding by γTub37C to spindles, and fits of a new, potentially more accurate model for fluorescence recovery yield kinetic parameters consistent with transient, diffusional binding.The FRAP results, together with its mutant effects late in meiosis I, indicate that γTub37C may perform a role subsequent to metaphase I, rather than nucleating microtubules for meiosis I spindle formation. Weak binding to the meiosis I spindle could stabilize pre-existing microtubules or position γ-tubulin for function during meiosis II spindle assembly, which follows rapidly upon oocyte activation and completion of the meiosis I division.Anastral spindles assemble without centrosomes by a pathway that is still not fully understood. In particular, the mechanism by which microtubule nucleation occurs has not been well defined. Although chromatin has been shown to play an essential role [1], the involvement of the microtubule nucleator, γ-tubulin, is still an open question. γ-Tubulin localizes to centrosomes and other microtubule organizing centers in mitosis and is essential for nucleating microtubules in organisms as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, Xenopus, humans, and higher plants [2-5]. γ-Tubulin is also found on spindle microtubules, where it has been proposed to nucleate microtubules for spindle maintenance by functioning in a chromatin-mediated nucleation pathway that augments the dominant pathway of nucleation by centrosomes [6,7].γ-Tubulin is present in cells as a large ring complex, γTuRC, comprising 12-13 γ-tubulin molecules a
Participating in Parliamentary Politics: Experiences of Indonesian Women 1995–2010
Sharyn Graham Davies,Nurul Ilmi Idrus
Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: This article concerns itself with women’s participation in politics and, more specifically, the representation of women in elected legislatures, in Indonesia between 1995 and 2010. The article gives readers a brief overview of the various ways that Indonesian women participate in politics. Examples are given of women being traditional rulers, having political authority, exercising power, becoming presidents and cabinet ministers, participating in protest movements, and being elected to parliament. The article then moves to focus more specifically on the election of women to the Indonesian parliament. The article analyses positive developments that have occurred in the past decade to facilitate women’s entry to parliamentary politics. Although numerous positive developments have indeed taken place, the article argues that women are still hindered in their attempts to get elected to parliament. Drawing on in-depth interviews, literature reviews, statistical analysis, and long-term ethnographic research, the authors identify some of the factors limiting women’s election, including the restrictive limited model of womanhood advocated in Indonesia, declining cronyism, the ineffectiveness of the thirty per cent quota, the reputation politics has of being dirty, the influence of religion, and the large sums of money candidates need to support their election campaigns.
Consequences of Low Risk and Hazardous Alcohol Consumption among University Students in Australia and Implications for Health Promotion Interventions  [PDF]
Sharyn Burns, Gemma Crawford, Jonathan Hallett, Jonine Jancey, Linda Portsmouth, Kristen Hunt, Janelle Longo
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.51001
Abstract: Background: Hazardous alcohol consumption and associated harms are high among young uni- versity students. The university environment is conducive to excessive alcohol consumption with studies finding young university students to drink alcohol at higher levels than their non-university peers. Methods: A random sample of 18 - 24-year-old undergraduate, internal university students completed a survey (n = 2465) to investigate differences in self-reported personal, second-hand and witnessed alcohol-related harms, alcohol expectancies, pre-loading, and friends’ alcohol consumption between low risk and hazardous drinkers. Univariate and multivariate analyses are reported. Results: Almost 40% of students who had consumed alcohol in the past year reported drinking at hazardous levels. Univariate analyses found students who reported hazardous drinking reported significantly higher scores relating to experienced, second-hand, witnessed and academic problems compared to low risk drinkers. Hazardous drinkers were also more likely to pre-load, to drink at higher levels when pre-loading, have more friends who drank alcohol, have more friends who drank at hazardous levels and to score higher on alcohol expectancies. However both low risk and hazardous drinkers experienced a range of harms due to their own drinking including hangover (71.2%), unprotected sex (19.3%), regretted sex (16.8%) and drink-driving (17%). Looking after an intoxicated student (34.3%) and witnessing someone pass out (37.5%) were issues for all drinkers. Experienced alcohol related harms, academic problems, alcohol expectancies, close friends’ level of alcohol consumption, pre-loading in the last four weeks and level of consumption when pre-loading were predictors of hazardous drinking (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Young undergraduate university students are at risk of a range of academic, social, emotional and physical harms associated with their own and other students’ alcohol consumption. There is a need for integrated programs to address university drinking culture and effect positive changes.
A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center
Travis Austin,Daniel E. Brooks,Sharyn Welch,Frank LoVecchio
International Journal of Family Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/417823
Abstract: Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone responsible for triaging patient phone queries. Using a scripted form, trained investigators questioned 100 consecutive primary care provider offices on how they would handle these poisoning-related calls if there was no poison center to refer their patients to. Results of our survey suggest that 82.5% of poisoning-related calls to primary care offices would be referred to 911 or an emergency department if there was no poison center. These results further support the role that poison centers play in patient care and health care utilization. 1. Background In 2009 US poison control centers (PCCs) handled over 4.2 million calls related to poisonings, drug information, and environmental exposures (e.g., envenomations), including almost 2.5 million human exposures [1]. Over 90% of these exposures occurred at the caller’s residence and 72.5% were managed on site, thereby not requiring an evaluation at a health care facility. These numbers of calls and percentage of on-site management have been consistent for several years [2]. Past work has shown that PCCs can save health care resources [3–11] including the prevention of unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits, and decrease lengths of stay for poisoned patients [4, 12–14]. One study, involving 2007 data from our single PCC, showed a median savings of $33 million in unnecessary health care charges by managing patients at home [11]. A report from the United States Institute of Medicine estimates that the combined activities of all US PCCs save more than $900 million annually [15, 16]. Other reviews have identified the importance of maintaining government’s financial support of PCCs, [15, 17] including one cost analysis that offered an appropriate summary by concluding that “poison control centers offer a large return on investment” [18]. Despite these data PCCs continue to be challenged with budget cuts [17, 19, 20]. Our PCC routinely conducts quality assurance surveys to identify our need and role within our community. We interview callers and health care providers on several issues including their satisfaction with our
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