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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 674 matches for " Sharyn Burns "
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Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students?  [PDF]
Kristen Hunt, Sharyn Burns
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.76009
Abstract: Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. Online data were collected from a random sample of university undergraduate students (n = 2506) aged 18 - 24 years old. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). Of these students 38% reported to drink at hazardous levels (AUDIT ≥ 8). When all factors were considered: gender, living arrangements, being a domestic student, hours spent at work, participation in university and community sport, higher levels of psychological distress, higher levels of social connectedness, and lower levels of social identity were significant predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption. The finding highlights the need for the inclusion of integrated, multi-strategy health promotion interventions on campus. Further exploration of the associations between social connectedness and social identity as influences of health behaviors will better inform the development of targeted strategies for specific groups.
Consequences of Low Risk and Hazardous Alcohol Consumption among University Students in Australia and Implications for Health Promotion Interventions  [PDF]
Sharyn Burns, Gemma Crawford, Jonathan Hallett, Jonine Jancey, Linda Portsmouth, Kristen Hunt, Janelle Longo
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.51001
Abstract: Background: Hazardous alcohol consumption and associated harms are high among young uni- versity students. The university environment is conducive to excessive alcohol consumption with studies finding young university students to drink alcohol at higher levels than their non-university peers. Methods: A random sample of 18 - 24-year-old undergraduate, internal university students completed a survey (n = 2465) to investigate differences in self-reported personal, second-hand and witnessed alcohol-related harms, alcohol expectancies, pre-loading, and friends’ alcohol consumption between low risk and hazardous drinkers. Univariate and multivariate analyses are reported. Results: Almost 40% of students who had consumed alcohol in the past year reported drinking at hazardous levels. Univariate analyses found students who reported hazardous drinking reported significantly higher scores relating to experienced, second-hand, witnessed and academic problems compared to low risk drinkers. Hazardous drinkers were also more likely to pre-load, to drink at higher levels when pre-loading, have more friends who drank alcohol, have more friends who drank at hazardous levels and to score higher on alcohol expectancies. However both low risk and hazardous drinkers experienced a range of harms due to their own drinking including hangover (71.2%), unprotected sex (19.3%), regretted sex (16.8%) and drink-driving (17%). Looking after an intoxicated student (34.3%) and witnessing someone pass out (37.5%) were issues for all drinkers. Experienced alcohol related harms, academic problems, alcohol expectancies, close friends’ level of alcohol consumption, pre-loading in the last four weeks and level of consumption when pre-loading were predictors of hazardous drinking (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Young undergraduate university students are at risk of a range of academic, social, emotional and physical harms associated with their own and other students’ alcohol consumption. There is a need for integrated programs to address university drinking culture and effect positive changes.
Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale
Jenny Tohotoa, Bruce Maycock, Yvonne L Hauck, Satvinder Dhaliwal, Peter Howat, Sharyn Burns, Colin W Binns
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-75
Abstract: A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results.The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6?weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes.Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and potentially lower the risk of postnatal anxiety.(Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000667213)Much research has explored postnatal depression in women [1-5] with less research on anxiety [6-9]. However, there is limited evidence on paternal postnatal anxiety and depression [10]. The changing role of fathers over the past two decades in developed countries has seen a shift from men being primarily breadwinners to fathers being expected to actively participate in nurturing and caring for their children [11]. This shifting role attribution has been associated with reduced self confidence and incr
Factors influencing the consumption of seafood among young children in Perth: a qualitative study
Alexandra McManus, Sharyn K Burns, Peter A Howat, Lisa Cooper, Lynda Fielder
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-119
Abstract: Purposive sampling techniques were used to select and recruit mothers of children aged between four and six years from within the Perth metropolitan area. A total of seven focus groups were conducted. Thematic content analysis was employed to code data generated and to extract major themes.Findings indicated that all children of study participants had tried fish and seafood products, with some being exposed to a wide variety from an early age. Across focus groups, several dominant factors were apparent in influencing the frequency and type of seafood purchased and consumed. Perceived cost, freshness, availability/accessibility, and the level of confidence to prepare a meal to suit all family members were significant determinants of whether seafood featured regularly on the household menu. The influence of others in the family (particularly the husband or partner) also tended to impact upon the likelihood of serving fish and seafood, and the types of products mothers were willing to serve.Findings from this qualitative study indicate that interventions seeking to promote seafood (particularly fish) as an integral part of a healthy diet should address existing negative attitudes and beliefs around the storage and preparation of seafood. The influence of dominant male influences within the family unit should also be considered. Strategies directed at parents and children should include experimental 'hands-on' components to encourage experimentation, particularly focussing on ease of preparation and the variety of lower cost seafood available.Establishing regular fish consumption as a healthy, cost effective option for families has the potential to impact upon their short and long-term health [1,2]. It also compliments the existing nutritional messages that relate to fruit and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Furthermore, the significant increase in cardiovascular diseases, overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence facilitates the promotion of regula
Dads make a difference: an exploratory study of paternal support for breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia
Jenny Tohotoa, Bruce Maycock, Yvonne L Hauck, Peter Howat, Sharyn Burns, Colin W Binns
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-4-15
Abstract: A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to identify parents' perceptions of what constitutes support for breastfeeding, particularly focusing upon paternal support. Focus groups were conducted with mothers and a focus group, interviews and an online survey were developed for fathers. Thematic analysis was used to identify the main themes.From a total of 76 participants, the major theme emerging from mothers' data identified that "Dads do make a difference". Three sub-themes included: Anticipating needs and getting the job done; Encouragement to do your best; and Paternal determination and commitment, associated with effective partner support. "Wanting to be involved" was identified from fathers' data as the major theme around their needs. Three sub-themes included: Wanting more information; Learning the role; and Being an advocate.Sharing the experience of childbirth and supporting each other in the subsequent infant feeding practices was perceived as the best outcome for the majority of new mothers and fathers. Paternal emotional, practical and physical supports were identified as important factors to promote successful breastfeeding and to enrich the experience for the mother and subsequently the father.Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000667213.Breastfeeding is an important strategy in the promotion of child health [1]. Support from others, especially from fathers, is a major factor affecting breastfeeding success [2]. Although breastfeeding initiation rates in Australia are high, with more than 83% of women leaving the hospital breastfeeding, only 23% of infants receive any breast milk by 12 months postpartum [3], which falls short of the international guidelines for infant nutrition [4,5]. Challenges that influence the duration of breastfeeding include community attitudes to breastfeeding [6]. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) both recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six mont
The protocol of a randomized controlled trial for playgroup mothers: Reminder on Food, Relaxation, Exercise, and Support for Health (REFRESH) Program
Sarojini MDR Monteiro, Jonine Jancey, Peter Howat, Sharyn Burns, Carlie Jones, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, Alexandra McManus, Andrew P Hills, Annie S Anderson
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-648
Abstract: The current study is a randomized controlled trial lifestyle (nutrition and physical activity) intervention for mothers with children aged between 0 to 5 years attending playgroups in Perth, Western Australia. Nine-hundred participants will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 450) and control (n = 450) groups. The study is based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and the Precede-Proceed Framework incorporating goal setting, motivational interviewing, social support and self-efficacy. The six month intervention will include multiple strategies and resources to ensure the engagement and retention of participants. The main strategy is home based and will include a specially designed booklet with dietary and physical activity information, a muscle strength and flexibility exercise chart, a nutrition label reading shopping list and menu planner. The home based strategy will be supported by face-to-face dietary and physical activity workshops in the playgroup setting, posted and emailed bi-monthly newsletters, and monthly Short Message Service (SMS) reminders via mobile phones. Participants in the control group receive no intervention materials. Outcome measures will be assessed using data that will be collected at baseline, six months and 12 months from participants in the control and intervention groups.This trial will add to the evidence base on the recruitment, retention and the impact of community based dietary and physical activity interventions for mothers with young children.Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000735257Overweight and obesity are important public health concerns. The percentage of Australian women of childbearing age that are overweight or obese has significantly increased over the past decade. In 2007, 44% of Australian women aged between 25 and 34 years were overweight or obese compared to only 26% in 1995 [1].Childbearing aged women are an important target
The many faces of Crohn’s Disease: Latest concepts in etiology  [PDF]
Jordana Campbell, Thomas J. Borody, Sharyn Leis
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22020
Abstract: The notion that Crohn’s Disease (CD) occurs as a result of an aberrant reaction to the commensal microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts is widely regarded by physicians and scientists as fact. Yet although it is undisputed that Crohn’s Disease is immune-mediated, an aberrant reaction to one’s own native flora is far from proven. The aim of the current review is to present a summary of the known infectious causes of Crohn’s Disease, whilst highlighting the limitations of using outdated methods to attempt to classify the disease as a single entity. We propose a re-classification of Crohn’s Disease, and suggest that the disease is best conceptualized as a syndrome, an “umbrella-like” term comprising a group of diseases with varying infective etiologies, which clinically, endoscopically and histologically are indistinguishable from CD.
Developing a Dynamic Microsimulation Model of the Australian Health System: A Means to Explore Impacts of Obesity over the Next 50 Years
Sharyn Lymer,Laurie Brown
Epidemiology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/132392
Abstract: Health of the ageing population has the potential to place considerable pressure on future government spending. Further, the impacts of the obesity epidemic have the potential to place additional pressure on government health budgets. In response to such fiscal concerns in Australia, a dynamic microsimulation model, APPSIM, has been developed at the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM). The health module was developed to allow consideration of health behaviours within the context of an ageing population and the resultant health profile of the population. Also included in the modelling is the associated use of health services and their costs. All health variables used were imputed onto the 2001 basefile derived from the 1 percent unit record file of the 2001 Australian census. Transition equations of these variables were estimated to allow projections over time. In this paper, the model has been used to look at the impacts of obesity on the Australian population health profile and associated health expenditure. In the scenario, removal of obesity from the population leads to a simulated population with a better health profile but showed only marginal changes in relative health expenditure. 1. Introduction It is well known that the Australian population is ageing and that across all age groups there is rising levels of obesity. In 1971, 8 percent of the Australian population was aged 65 years and over: by 2010, this had increased to almost 14 percent [1]. Official projections indicate that by 2050 some 23 percent of the Australian population will be aged 65 years and over [2]. An ageing population places increased pressure on government spending through increased demand for health care, aged care, and pensions. Health care spending has been steadily growing, from $Au 42 billion in 1996-1997 to $Au 103 billion in 2006-2007 [3]. Projections estimate continued rises in health expenditure from 3.7 percent of GDP in 2009/10 to 7.0 percent of GDP in 2046/47 [2]. Beyond the number or proportion of the aged population, the impacts on future health expenditure will be moderated by the health experience of the aged population. Possibilities of morbidity compression [4], expansion [5], dynamic equilibrium [6], or some cyclic effect between compression and expansion of morbidity [7] will impact the possible demand for health services. The relationship between health and longevity may be effected by the severity of disease not being as great due to slower progression of disease [8]. Further, issues such as new technology, medications, and changes
CRITIQUING AUSTRALIA’S KNOWLEDGE STRATEGY: HOW CAN WE BETTER POSITION OURSELVES IN A GLOBAL COMMUNITY?
Sharyn Renshaw,Girija Krishnaswamy
Lex et Scientia , 2008,
Abstract: This paper will provide critical analysis of Australia’ knowledge strategy, conducted from the perspective that driving a national knowledge strategy is the predominant responsibility of government for reasons of impartiality. As such critique will be focused upon the actionsundertaken by the Australian government to position the nation as a Knowledge-based Economy (KBE) competitively within the global community. It will be argued that to qualify for the title of “knowledge nation” the country needs to perform well across a composite range of factors. Examination of composite strategies will be conducted within a model of Knowledge Development, categorising the government’s knowledge sourcing, abstraction, conversion, diffusion and refinement strategies. The paper will conclude with recommendations for improving Australia’s position within the global knowledge economy and consequently within the global information community.
Gender Differences in the Validity of Career Interest Inventories  [PDF]
Stephanie T. Burns
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.58089
Abstract:

Predictive validity (including hit rates, kappa coefficients, and chance expectancy rates) between standard scoring and person matching was compared by gender based upon ex post facto data collected on 5143 medical students who had taken a career interest inventory and entered their medical residency. Hit rate accuracy for person matching with females and males in this study was lower than standard scoring. However, person matching demonstrated greater gender balancing in first match hit rates. Additionally, person matching increased career interest inventory validity over standard scoring as it has the greater ability to a) differentiate between and b) assign to specific occupational groups for females and males. Furthermore, person matching has the potential to offer female and male test takers the ability to receive narrative career data, which could improve the career decision making process over the scoring reports of career interest inventories using standard scoring.

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