Abstract:
We consider a mixture of one neutral and two oppositely charged types of molecules confined to a surface. Using analytical techniques and molecular dynamics simulations, we construct the phase diagram of the system and exhibit the coexistence between a patterned solid phase and a charge-dilute phase. The patterns in the solid phase arise from competition between short-range immiscibility and long-range electrostatic attractions between the charged species. The coexistence between phases leads to observations of stable patterned domains immersed in a neutral matrix background.

Abstract:
A binary mixture of oppositely charged components confined to a plane such as cationic and anionic lipid bilayers may exhibit local segregation. The relative strength of the net short range interactions, which favors macroscopic segregation, and the long range electrostatic interactions, which favors mixing, determines the length scale of the finite size or microphase segregation. The free energy of the system can be examined analytically in two separate regimes, when considering small density fluctuations at high temperatures, and when considering the periodic ordering of the system at low temperatures (F. J. Solis and M. Olvera de la Cruz, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 054905 (2000)). A simple Molecular Dynamics simulation of oppositely charged monomers, interacting with a short range Lennard Jones potential and confined to a two dimensional plane, is examined at different strengths of short and long range interactions. The system exhibits well-defined domains that can be characterized by their periodic length-scale as well as the orientational ordering of their interfaces. By adding salt, the ordering of the domains disappears and the mixture macroscopically phase segregates in agreement with analytical predictions.

Abstract:
We study ion condensation onto a patterned surface of alternating charges. The competition between self-energy and ion-surface interactions leads to the formation of ionic crystalline structures at low temperatures. We consider different arrangements of underlying ionic crystals, including single ion adsorption, as well as the formation of dipoles at the interface between charged domains. Molecular dynamic simulation illustrates existence of single and mixed phases. Our results contribute to understanding pattern recognition, and molecular separation and synthesis near patterned surfaces.

Abstract:
Primordial non-Gaussianity has emerged as one of the most promising probes of the inflationary epoch. While the cosmic microwave background and large-scale halo bias currently provide the most stringent constraints on the non-Gaussian parameter fNL, the abundance of dark matter halos is a complementary probe which may allow tests of Gaussianity which are independent of the precise form of non-Gaussian initial conditions. We study the halo mass function in N-body simulations with a range of non-Gaussian initial conditions. In addition to the usual fNL model, we consider gNL Phi^3-type non-Gaussianity and models where the 4-point amplitude tauNL is an independent parameter. We introduce a new analytic form for the halo mass function in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity, the "log-Edgeworth" mass function, and find good agreement with the N-body simulations. The log-Edgeworth mass function introduces no free parameters and can be constructed from first principles for any model of primordial non-Gaussianity.

Abstract:
Large-scale clustering of highly biased tracers of large-scale structure has emerged as one of the best observational probes of primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type (i.e. f_{NL}^{local}). This type of non-Gaussianity can be generated in multifield models of inflation such as the curvaton model. Recently, Tseliakhovich, Hirata, and Slosar showed that the clustering statistics depend qualitatively on the ratio of inflaton to curvaton power \xi after reheating, a free parameter of the model. If \xi is significantly different from zero, so that the inflaton makes a non-negligible contribution to the primordial adiabatic curvature, then the peak-background split ansatz predicts that the halo bias will be stochastic on large scales. In this paper, we test this prediction in N-body simulations. We find that large-scale stochasticity is generated, in qualitative agreement with the prediction, but that the level of stochasticity is overpredicted by ~30%. Other predictions, such as \xi independence of the halo bias, are confirmed by the simulations. Surprisingly, even in the Gaussian case we do not find that halo model predictions for stochasticity agree consistently with simulations, suggesting that semi-analytic modeling of stochasticity is generally more difficult than modeling halo bias.

Abstract:
A wide range of multifield inflationary models generate non-Gaussian initial conditions in which the initial adiabatic fluctuation is of the form (zeta_G + g_{NL} zeta_G^3). We study halo clustering in these models using two different analytic methods: the peak-background split framework, and brute force calculation in a barrier crossing model, obtaining agreement between the two. We find a simple, theoretically motivated expression for halo bias which agrees with N-body simulations and can be used to constrain g_{NL} from observations. We discuss practical caveats to constraining g_{NL} using only observable properties of a tracer population, and argue that constraints obtained from populations whose observed bias is <~ 2.5 are generally not robust to uncertainties in modeling the halo occupation distribution of the population.

Abstract:
Models of inflation in which non-Gaussianity is generated outside the horizon, such as curvaton models, generate distinctive higher-order correlation functions in the CMB and other cosmological observables. Testing for violation of the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality tauNL >= (6/5 fNL)^2, where fNL and tauNL denote the amplitude of the three-point and four-point functions in certain limits, has been proposed as a way to distinguish qualitative classes of models. This inequality has been proved for a wide range of models, but only weaker versions have been proved in general. In this paper, we give a proof that the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality is always satisfied. We discuss scenarios in which the inequality may appear to be violated in an experiment such as Planck, and how this apparent violation should be interpreted. We analyze a specific example, the "ungaussiton" model, in which leading-order scaling relations suggest that the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality is eventually violated, and show that the inequality always holds.

Abstract:
Cosmic inflation provides a mechanism for generating the early density perturbations that seeded the large-scale structures we see today. Primordial non-Gaussianity is among the most promising of few observational tests of physics at this epoch. At present non-Gaussianity is best constrained by the cosmic microwave background, but in the near term large-scale structure data may be competitive so long as the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity can be modeled through the non-linear process of structure formation. We discuss recent work modeling effects of a few types of primordial non-Gaussianity on the large-scale halo clustering and the halo mass function. More specifically, we compare analytic and N-body results for two variants of the curvaton model of inflation: (i) a "tauNL" scenario in which the curvaton and inflaton contribute equally to the primordial curvature perturbation and (ii) a "gNL" model where the usual quadratic fNL term in the potential cancels, but a large cubic term remains.

Abstract:
If the entire post-inflationary patch is large compared to our Hubble volume even a small level of non-Gaussianity can cause statistics of the primordial curvature field in our Hubble volume to be biased by mode-coupling. We explicitly compute the variation of locally measured statistics of the primordial curvature $\zeta$ from non-Gaussian mode coupling within a specific inflationary scenario: the curvaton model with a quadratic curvaton potential. This "super cosmic variance" is calculated in two ways: (i) as a super observer who has access to the curvature perturbation field across the entire post-inflationary patch and therefore sees local statistics as biased by mode coupling and (ii) as a local observer who sees the statistics of $\zeta$ determined by the local values of quantities in their Hubble patch. The two calculations agree and show that in the quadratic curvaton model patch-to-patch differences in statistics of $\zeta$ can be interpreted entirely as a shift in the value of the curvaton field at freeze out. Applying the same arguments to single-field slow-roll inflation gives a simple picture of how non-Gaussian mode-coupling between the curvature perturbations on very different physical scales must vanish in the attractor limit.

Abstract:
The large-scale distribution of cold dark matter halos is generally assumed to trace the large-scale distribution of matter. In a universe with multiple types of matter fluctuations, as is the case with massive neutrinos, the relation between the halo field and the matter fluctuations may be more complicated. We develop a method for calculating the bias factor relating fluctuations in the halo number density to fluctuations in the mass density in the presence of multiple fluctuating components of the energy density. In the presence of massive neutrinos we find a small but pronounced feature in the halo bias near the neutrino free-streaming scale. The neutrino feature is a small step with amplitude that increases with halo mass and neutrino mass density. The scale-dependent halo bias lessens the suppression of the small-scale halo power spectrum and should therefore weaken constraints on neutrino mass from the galaxy auto-power spectrum and correlation function. On the other hand, the feature in the bias is itself a novel signature of massive neutrinos that can be studied independently.