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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 54 matches for " Sharmon Lynnette Monagan "
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Patriarchy: Perpetuating the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation
Sharmon Lynnette Monagan
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Female genital mutilation is a common practice in certainregions of Africa and Asia. This often times performed by women onother women and young girls. Men are far removed from the actitself. Proponents argue that it decreases the rate ofHIV/AIDS. Therefore it is beneficial to the larger society. However,female genital mutilation, much the same as foot-binding and breastironing and corsetry are part of a continuum of female body andsexuality control. These practices like female genital mutilation arecarried out by women for the benefit of men. This paper attempts to show that these practices are not isolated occurrances or cultural phenomons but rather the invisible hand of patriarchy. The privileging of male that accompanies patriarchial systems make female genital mutilation a requirement for women’s survival not a chose.
A new edge selection heuristic for computing the Tutte polynomial of an undirected graph
Michael Monagan
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We present a new edge selection heuristic and vertex ordering heuristic that together enable one to compute the Tutte polynomial of much larger sparse graphs than was previously doable. As a specific example, we are able to compute the Tutte polynomial of the truncated icosahedron graph using our Maple implementation in under 4 minutes on a single CPU. This compares with a recent result of Haggard, Pearce and Royle whose special purpose C++ software took one week on 150 computers.
Public health perspectives on noise and cardiovascular disease  [PDF]
Lynnette-Nathalie Lyzwinski
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.41005
Abstract:

Introduction: Emerging research suggests that noise impacts human health beyond simply the auditory system. There have been recent amendments to acceptable noise level thresholds within the occupational setting and new European Union directives for noise in the community from air and road sources. The purpose of this review will be to assess the relationship between noise and cardiovascular disease in different settings. Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed on noise and more cardiovascular disease endpoints. All studies published in the English language between 2000-present were included. Studies on noise annoyance were excluded. Results: There is a strong positive association between occupational noise exposure and cardiovascular outcomes. There is a moderate association with noise in the community setting from road sources and a weak association with aircraft noise. The strength of the association across settings is dependent on the outcome type, interaction with age and sex of subjects, and time of measurement. Road source noise had the strongest association with myocardial infarction, notably in women during night exposures. The association with hypertension and road noise, when stratified by sex, was significant in men during night-time exposures and in pregnant older women. Only nighttime aircraft noise was associated with statistically significant findings in adults. All sources of noise demonstrate a dose response relationship, which peaks at different noise thresholds. Occupational noise exposure had the strongest association with noise > 85 dB (A) and duration of exposure. Conclusion: There is sufficient evidence to warrant the precautionary public health principle to reduce noise at the population levels for industry workers through stronger legislation, regular compliance inspections, and health promotion. Where population wide noise legislation has not yet been enacted, noise exposure reduction at the individual level may be beneficial.

The design of Maple's sum-of-products and POLY data structures for representing mathematical objects
Michael M Monagan
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.504v1
Abstract: The principal data structure in Maple used to represent polynomials and general mathematical expressions involving functions like sqrt(x), sin x, exp(2x), y'(x) etc., is known to the Maple developers as the sum-of-products data structure. Gaston Gonnet, as the primary author of the Maple kernel, designed and implemented this data structure in the early 80s. As part of the process of simplifying a mathematical formula, he represented every Maple object and every sub-object uniquely in memory. This makes testing for equality, which is used in many operations, very fast. In this article, on occasion of Gaston's retirement, we present details of his design, its pros and cons, and changes we have made to it over the years. One of the cons is the sum-of-products data structure is not nearly as efficient for multiplying multivariate polynomials as other special purpose computer algebra systems. We describe the new data structure called POLY which we added to Maple 17 (released 2013) to improve performance for polynomials in Maple, and recent work done for Maple 18 (released 2014).
Improving the teaching of mathematics to students of science and engineering
J F Ogilvie,M B Monagan
Albanian Journal of Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: To improve the teaching of mathematics to students of scienceand engineering, an holistic approach strongly based on the use of software forsymbolic computation with numerical and graphical capabilities is advocated.Within three semesters the quality and quantity of mathematics understoodand implementable by those students can be signicantly enhanced with thisapproach, which was tested during an accelerated course that covered all per-tinent content within eight weeks.
Recent advances in understanding of interactions between genes and diet in the etiology of colorectal cancer
Lynnette R Ferguson
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology , 2010,
Abstract: At an international level, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Diet plays a major etiologic role, and a range of putative dietary carcinogens have been identified. The probability with which these lead to mutations, and thereby cause cancer, is strongly impacted by variants in genes coding for xenobiotic metabolizing or DNA repair enzymes. Nutrient deficiencies also play a role, which will be exacerbated by variants in metabolic genes. However, many of the causal genes in sporadic CRC have hitherto proved elusive. The power of large international collaborations, coupled with genome-wide association studies, has implicated a major functional role of the tumour growth factor-β pathway in CRC susceptibility. Nutrient regulation of gene expression may be especially important here. Future large collaborative studies must consider gene-gene and gene-diet interactions, coupled with high throughput genomic technologies, in order to uncover the relative roles of genetic variants, mutagenic xenobiotics, nutrient imbalance and gene expression in the etiology of CRC.
Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, and Selenium
Lynnette R. Ferguson
Frontiers in Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2011.00015
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health, in individuals and in population groups. However, definitive proof of such effects will require very large collaborative studies, international agreement on study design, and innovative approaches to data analysis.
Allantoin as A Biomarker of Inflammation in an Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mouse Model: NMR Analysis of Urine
Lynnette R. Fergusonmdr1a -/-
The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.2174/1874847300801010001]
Abstract: Crohn s disease (CD) is an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that is characterised by destructive inflammation of the intestinal wall. Current methods for determining inflammation of the bowel are costly, time consuming and can cause discomfort to the patients. In order to address these problems, biomarker analysis of more accessible tissues is receiving increasing attention. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the promotion of inflammation. Allantoin has recently been reported as a biomarker for oxidative stress in human serum and urine. This paper investigates allantoin as a biomarker of inflammation in a mouse model of CD. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyse allantoin in urine from the mdr1a -/- mouse which is a model of CD. The data show that the levels of allantoin are strongly correlated with histological injury scores of mouse colonic tissue samples. Allantoin appears to be a useful biomarker of gut inflammation, involving oxidative stress, in a mouse model of CD and may be a potential biomarker in human CD studies.
Fair Lady: effective coverage of politics in a women’s magazine
Chanel Boshoff,Lynnette Fourie,Thalyta Swanepoel
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2011, DOI: 10.5789/4-2-4
Abstract: The article discusses the coverage of politics in South African women’s magazine Fair Lady in selected years from democratisation in 1994 to ten years later in 2004. In a democracy, the media has the explicit duty to inform society. Within this context three questions are asked: (1) Which political themes are covered? (2) In what genres do the political items feature? (3) In what ways does the magazine focus the reader’s attention on political items? These aspects were selected to provide a clear view of the extent and manner in which Fair Lady presents politics in its content. This study was done by means of a qualitative content analysis. By focusing on these issues and by drawing on the functions of the media; the agenda setting theory; the schema theory and the on-line evaluation theory, it is argued that the magazine deems politics as important and incorporates it on its agenda to provide readers with necessary political information which they might not otherwise attain. Fair Lady overcomes the fact that politics does not traditionally feature in women’s magazines by taking care in attracting and keeping readers’ attention to political items. The publication (especially in 2004) can be held up as an example to other women’s magazines trying to fulfil their function as a medium to educate and inform readers whilst at the same time not alienating the entertainment-seekers.
Potential prospects of nanomedicine for targeted therapeutics in inflammatory bowel diseases
Madharasi VA Pichai,Lynnette R Ferguson
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i23.2895
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn’s disease are highly debilitating. There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications, failures in adequate drug delivery, and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD. This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics. This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine, studied so far in animal and in vitro models, before comprehensive clinical testing in humans. The investigations carried out so far in IBD models have provided substantial evidence of the nanotherapeutic approach as having the potential to overcome some of the current drawbacks to conventional IBD therapy. We analyze the pros and cons of nanotechnology in IBD therapies studied in different models, aimed at different targets and mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis, in an attempt to predict its possible impact in humans.
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